PSY270H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Mental Rotation, Exemplar Theory, Epiphenomenon

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Published on 22 Sep 2017
Lecture 6: Semantic memory
Learning Objectives:
Define imagery, symbolic and arbitrary representations and propositions
- Iage is a etal epesetatio of soethig that is’t uetl peset
o Resembles a physical items in reality
- Symbolic representation is an arbitrary mental representation of a concept
o “tads fo soethig ut does’t esele it
o Example: language thee’s othig aout laguage the eseles hat it stads fo
o The od dog does ot soud o look like a dog
- Proposition: the smallest unit of knowledge that can stand as an assertion; something that you can
judge as true or false
o This is a potato is a proposition because you can judge true or false
Desrie Paiio’s dual-code theory and how it can account for the effects of imagery on memory
- Thoughts can be represented in 2 ways
o As words (symbolic code)
o As analogue codes (images)
- Everything can be represented verbally but not everything can be represented as an image
o We a desie a at, ut it’s easie just to picture it (two code)
o We a desie feedo ut it’s ot so eas to pitue it oe ode
- Dual-Code theory describe one way of representing images (as depictive representations)
Describe the debate between functional-equivalence theory and propositional theory
- The functional-equivalence hypothesis believes all images are represented as spatial
representations (analogue codes)
- Propositional theory argues against functional-equivalence theory
- Propositional theory: images are epiphenomena of underlying propositional networks
o Images are just something that happens but are not needed
o Thoughts is a series of propositional network (they are not link to our senses) distant body
Describe evidence/experiments that support functional-equivalence theory and propositional theory
- Mental Rotation (analogue codes)
o Shepard & Metzler (1971) created the mental rotation task
o The idea is that participants is presented with two images, the second image is rotated in
space. The task is to indicate whether the two images are the same or different. Reaction
time measured (DV) & Degree of rotation of the second shape (IV)
o For the same shape, reaction time increased as angle rotation increased
o For different shapes, reaction time stay more or less the same regardless of angle rotation
o This pattern represented an analogous result == the more we rotate in or mind the longer
we react
- Image Scanning (analogue codes depending on the instruction)
o Memorize this map, iagie ou’e at the eah ad etall sa the ap util ou get to
the windmill (to the lighthouse)
The farther one travels on the map, the longer the reaction time == supports
analogue code
o Image each location has a light, imagine the only light that is on is at the beach, imagine the
light goes off, but at the same time a light comes on at the windmill (at the lighthouse)
The light house if still further from the windmill but there is no difference in reaction
Thus argue that we may not be using analogue code
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