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Lecture 8

PSY270H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Syllogism, Mental Model, Inductive Reasoning

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Christine Burton

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Lecture 8: Decision Making
Learning Objective:
Describe the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning
- Deduction: you take theory and principles and apply to specific instances
- Induction: observe specific instances and create general principles
Describe what a syllogism is and the factors that influence how easily they can be
- Syllogisms involve drawing a conclusion from 2 statements that we assume are true
- Syllogism with definite quantifiers (all, none) are easier to solve
- Syllogisms with negations are harder to solve
- Sometimes we cannot draw a logical conclusion from a syllogism it is
indeterminate (there is no logical conclusion)
Explain how we can use mental models to solve syllogisms
- Mental model: a representation of the current situation in all possible outcome
List and explain (with examples) the cognitive factors that affect syllogistic reasoning
- Mental models used to solve syllogisms are limited by the same types of things that
limit other cognitive tasks
o Working Memory
o Prior Knowledge
o Visual imagery
Describe conditional reasoning and the rules we can use to come to a valid conclusion
Describe the Wason selection task and what it teaches us about our ability to reason
Explain how knowledge can help or hinder reasoning
Define inductive reasoning and hypothesis testing
Explain Expected Utility Theory
Describe and give examples of heuristics and biases that affect decision making
- Representativeness Heuristic
- Availability Heuristic
Describe the dual-process theory of decision making
- Two systems are involved in decision making
o System 1 automatic and implicit
o System 2 is controlled and conscious
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