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Lecture 8

PSY270H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Syllogism, Mental Model, Inductive Reasoning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY270H1
Professor
Christine Burton
Lecture
8

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Lecture 8: Decision Making
Learning Objective:
Describe the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning
- Deduction: you take theory and principles and apply to specific instances
- Induction: observe specific instances and create general principles
Describe what a syllogism is and the factors that influence how easily they can be
solved
- Syllogisms involve drawing a conclusion from 2 statements that we assume are true
- Syllogism with definite quantifiers (all, none) are easier to solve
- Syllogisms with negations are harder to solve
- Sometimes we cannot draw a logical conclusion from a syllogism it is
indeterminate (there is no logical conclusion)
Explain how we can use mental models to solve syllogisms
- Mental model: a representation of the current situation in all possible outcome
List and explain (with examples) the cognitive factors that affect syllogistic reasoning
- Mental models used to solve syllogisms are limited by the same types of things that
limit other cognitive tasks
o Working Memory
o Prior Knowledge
o Visual imagery
Describe conditional reasoning and the rules we can use to come to a valid conclusion
-
Describe the Wason selection task and what it teaches us about our ability to reason
-
Explain how knowledge can help or hinder reasoning
-
Define inductive reasoning and hypothesis testing
-
Explain Expected Utility Theory
-
Describe and give examples of heuristics and biases that affect decision making
- Representativeness Heuristic
- Availability Heuristic
Describe the dual-process theory of decision making
- Two systems are involved in decision making
o System 1 automatic and implicit
o System 2 is controlled and conscious
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