The breadth of attention: everyone knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration, of consciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others - william james. Idea that it"s not where you"re looking at, it"s where you"re paying attention. Recognizes that there"s competition, you can only pay attention to so much. Have to differentiate between what you are vs not paying attention to. Explains how wide the field of attention is. How/when does attention influence cognitive processing: a common sense approach to thinking about the bottleneck of attention, lots of senses -> sight, sound, touch, etc. Represented by message a, b, c, d: we filter out the things that aren"t important to us, we"re being constantly bombarded by all pieces of information.