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Lecture on Long-Term Memory

Course Code
Gillian Rowe

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Lecture 1
Episodic memory: uniquely human? (Clayton & Dickinson, 1998)
To find if scrub-jays (non-human) can also form episodic memory by recalling what happened in the
In trial 1, peanut was cached first and then there was a delay for 120 hours. After that, worm was
cached followed by 4 hours delay.
In trial 2, wor m was cached first and then there was a delay for 120 hours. After that, peanut was
cached followed by 4 hours delay.
Resul t s show that in trial 1, scrub-jays searched for wor ms because worms that were still fresh (only 4
hours has passed) while in trial 2, scrub-jays searched for peanuts instead of worms since wor ms were
not fresh (120 hours has passed)
Indicates that episodic memory is not uniquely human
Implicit memory in everyday experience: Propaganda effect (Perfect & Askew, 1994)
Ps were asked to scan articles in a magazine (advertisement included)
They were told not to pay attention to the ads
Later, they were just shown ads (some from magazines, others that had never been exposed to)
Asked to rate ads (appealing, eye-catching, distinct, memorable)
Higher ratings for those from magazine
Indicates that ppl are more likely to rate statements read/heard before as being true simply because of
prior exposure
Recall vs. recognition for very long term memory (Bahrick, 1975)
Ps were those who graduated from high school as long as 48 years ago
Given the high school yearbooks containing names and photos of students
4 different memory tests (free recall of names, photo recognition, name recognition, name & photo
Resul t s free recall of names (60% - after 15 yrs /30% - after 45 yrs) photo recognition (40% after
48 yrs) name recognition (80% after 48 yrs) matching (90% after 34 yrs)
Indicates that recognition is easier than recall, especially when all the info (name AND photo) were
given at once
Levels of processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972)
Basic assumption stimulus can be processed in different levels (physical, acoustic, semantic), and
the info is processed through an orderly hierarchy of levels (from physical features to phonemic to
semantic) / elaborative rehearsal (deeper, meaningful analysis) vs. maintenance rehearsal (sheer
Hypothesis: deeper processing leads to better memory
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