PSY270H1 Lecture Notes - Occipital Lobe, Visual Search, Parietal Lobe

12 views6 pages
Published on 12 Sep 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY270H1
Lecture 5: 309
attention is a limited resource
+ more we pay attention to one thing, the expense of our environment...
overt: paying attention overtly – not just looking at it, but focusing our mind on it as well as look
at it.
+ directing sense organs towards a stimulus source
Covert: looking at someone talking but paying attention to somewhere else. Look at one
direction but have the mind focused somewhere else.
+ neural process that enhances the signal from a particular part of sensory panorama (ie: while
reading, shifting overt attention would be amount to movement of eyes to read different words,
but covert attention shift would occur when you shift your focus from semantic processing of a
word to the font/color of the word you're reading)
Sustained: paying attention for a long period of time. Important for focus, processing
information... challenge if trying to pay attention for a very long time.
+ limitations on how long we can pay attention to ;; tasks get difficult after a prolonged period of
time
+ level of attention that produces consistent results on a task over time
+ ability to direct and focus cognitive activity on specific stimuli
Transient: shift attention. Keep fresh of environment. Can be taken to extreme – supremely
distractable, trouble focusing
+ when choosing to pay attention to something, paying dodges of attention to it – choose to pay
attention (deliberate cognitive process – a choice to pay attention to one thing in deliberate of
expenses to others)
+ the involuntary, stimulus-driven component of spatial attention
Endogenous: overt attention
+ voluntary attention shift
+ one choosing of their own volition to direct their attention
exogenous: looking down, attention is triggered... environment has pulled your attention by
reflex.
+ automatic shift of attention
+ “reflexive attention”
+ occurs when an external object/event (ie: bee flying by) grabs attention away from the book one
is reading, and attracts it regularly
Bottleneck of processing: all these things brought into our world, we can only give further
processing to some of it.
+ the trimming (where some gets the boot, some gets processing) occurs where...?
Dichotic listening task:
+ investigate selective attention in auditory system
+ separate streams of input
+ manipulate the direction of attention
+ put headphones on a person with two different information going into the head
- in left, the speech input is the same as the attended input
- in right, no speech input comes out...
Early selection model:
+ Broadben's filter theory:
+ when we're choosing to pay attention to something, we choose to pay attention to things based
on their physical characteristics … of sound alone
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
+ ie: gender of speaker (male/female);; high or low voice
+ once you choose to pay attention to female voice, you're not paying attention to the male voice
… all that information is discarded – gone and unavailable for any further processing
+ ie: problem: if paying attention to the only right ear, left should be gone but doesn't happen...
the first words are prominent, but in the middle, the left ear's information weaves through
- no realization – happens quick, automatically
+ attention shuts down or attenuates processing in the unattended ear before the mind can analyze
its semantic content
+ registration & perceptual analysis
+ stimulus need not be completely perceptually analyzed before it can be selected for further
processing or rejected as irrevelent
Late selection model:
+ Treisman's attenuation theory:
+ we can choose to pay attention to certain things – if we choose to not pay attention to one thing,
the information doesn't get completely discarded... information is rather dampened: not
completely thrown out, but put on hold – it can be recalled upon if necessary when semantically
relevant to hearing
+ explains the “intrusion of unattended inputs” – cocktail party phenomenon
+ pay attention to one ear more than the other
+ contents in both ears is analyzed semantically, but the words in the unattended ear cannot access
consciousness
+ semantic encoding/analysis → executive functions... → decisions, memory, etc
+ attended and ignored inputs are processed equivalently by the perceptual system, reaching a
stage of semantic (meaning) encoding and analysis. Thereafter, selection for additional processing
and perhaps also representation in awareness can take place
Directing visual attention:
Posner's spatial cueing paradigm:
+ on a given trial, given an arrow that goes left or the right... a cue for the box to come up
+ valid trial: the most sensible one where the arrow would be straightforward and show where
the cube will come up
+ invalid trial: a trickster; the arrow is pointing the opposite direction of the cube
+ neutral trial: no indication of where the cube is going to show up; cue can go in either
direction
+ reaction time fastest when you have a valid cue; slowest when you get invalid cues that points
in the wrong direction and when you don't get a hint at all (neutral), you're in the middle
+ differences in reaction time as a function of location expectancy – benefits (speeding of reaction
time) & costs (slowing of reaction time) ;; attributed to the influence of covert attention on the
efficiency of information processing.
Neisser and Becklen:
+ overlapping videos
+ people pay attention to one movie – good at that.
+ the more you pay attention to one thing, the less resources you have for other things
Visual search & related processes:
+ word search...
+ serial search: going through one line at a time in a crossword. Takes longer to find a letter
that's at the bottom of the list than at the top. The more you have to search through, the longer it
takes.
+ parallel processing: search multiple things at once. Scattered letters; find a red letter out of all
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

+ more we pay attention to one thing, the expense of our environment Overt: paying attention overtly not just looking at it, but focusing our mind on it as well as look at it. + directing sense organs towards a stimulus source. Covert: looking at someone talking but paying attention to somewhere else. Look at one direction but have the mind focused somewhere else. Sustained: paying attention for a long period of time. Important for focus, processing information challenge if trying to pay attention for a very long time. + limitations on how long we can pay attention to ;; tasks get difficult after a prolonged period of time. + level of attention that produces consistent results on a task over time. + ability to direct and focus cognitive activity on specific stimuli. Can be taken to extreme supremely distractable, trouble focusing.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.