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PSY270H1 Lecture Notes - Cogito Ergo Sum, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Pineal Gland

Course Code
Kristie Dukewich

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PSY270H1F L1; Sept 12, 2012
Many graphs in this course
Pedogogy = study of teaching
o Shows iclickers help to enjoy & learn more
o Talking to peers improves these more than anything else
Refer to prof as “Dr.”
Tips for this class
Don’t copy anything on the grey slides
o Anchor pts of what’s coming up, helps to organize
If I say “X refers to”
o Write down
If I say “just as a side note”
o Not on exam, don’t write down
If I mention a name vs. If a name is included on the slide
o Know names on slides
o Who they are, general area of research, what they
If I don’t cover it in class, you will still need to know it
Take risks, make mistakes
If you ask me a question I don’t know the answer to...
Urgent email : no caps, be professional
Implicit association tasks: used to find bias ppl may not
know they have even w quick reaction time
o Congruent block: words match, shows bias
o Incongruent block; categories mismatch
Cognitive Psychology
The scientific study of the mind
o the mind creates & controls mental fns”
o Using evidence
o Refinement of Folk Psychology commonsense theories
or assumptions, created by observing ourselves & other
o Executive control inhibits automatic responses
Governed by frontal lobe Under-developed in
children, why hard to resist
Perception, attention, memory, mental representations,
language, Problem-Solving, Reasoning, Decision-Making
Look at graphs in chapters, x-y-axes
How do you recognize this object?
How does a person recall how many windows there are in her
How do you understand the following situation?
How does one solve the following problem?
o Ex. Candle problem
Historical Context
Plato & Aristotle
Descartes & Locke
William James & Associationism
Darwin, Darwin & Galton
Wilhem Wundt
Hermann Ebbinghaus
The Reign of Behaviorism
The Cognitive Approach
Plato: Nativist knowledge is innate, born knowing all the info
we have, al there to be discovered at birth
o Abstract, mystical, didn’t check beliefs w world around
o Did not agree w empiricism
o Aristotle’s mentor
o Don’t know much about his writing besides what
Aristotle left behind
Aristotle: Empiricist knowledge acquired thru experience
o Ppl make empirical observations that get assimilated into
their knowledge
o Memory = associations bwn knowledge
o Ways thru which associations are formed:
o Contiguity (nearness in time & space; major tenant of
operant conditioning), frequency (the more we
experience contiguity, the stronger the association btwn
the ideas), similarity (things that are similar in nature
will get linked together & trigger recall of each other; also
includes possibility of contrast, extreme opposites can
also be linked [ex. Big + small. Short + tall)
o Modern research has shown he was on track
Rene Descartes
o Cogito ergo sum
I think therefore I am
o Dualism: Mind & body are separate
Allowed mind to be of scientific study
Mind = immaterial, divine, drives body
Body = more than sum of parts
Animal spirits & Some sensory info comes in thru
eyes stimulate pineal gland release fluid
reflected down tubes into body triggers motor
o Started convo on cognition again
o Was agreed with by spiritual authorities seen mind seen
as divine
o Nativist (knowledge = innate) +
o Rationalist (human beings rationalize and thru this come
to discovery; rationalization = innate)
o What’s important is what we rationalize
Makes sense
John Locke
Alive around same time as Descartes
Profound Empiricist
The mind thru a prism
o Break down thoughts into elements
o Metaphor for knowledge
o Ex. Cherry = red, sweet, round
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