PSY270H1F Lecture 9

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Published on 18 Nov 2012
School
Department
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PSY270H1F L9, Nov 14, 2012
Lecture Outline
Chapter 10: Imagery
Imagery & perception
o Investigations of mental imagery
o Imagery debate
o Interactions btwn imagery & perception
o Video games
Neuroscience of imagery
o fMRI
o TMS
o Neuropsychology
Imagery & Memory
o Mnemonics (distinctiveness)
o Eidetic memory
o synethesia
Iclicker:
In PDP models of semantic networks, connection weights apply to
which of the following?
A) hidden units
o most
B) input units
C) output units
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Which is true regarding exemplars but not prototypes?
A) they can account for family resemblance
o both
B) they can explain priming effects
o both
C) they can easily take into account atypical cases
D) They can explain stereotypes
E) They can involve an avg of common category numbers
o prototypes
Imagery
mental pics like seeing w/o visual stimulation
who has bushier eyebrows: JB or Simon Cowell?
Helpful: imagery in sport
o Sports psychology: When an athlete takes time imagine
well executed, well-timed, elegant performance
improve performance later on when literally engaged in
spot
Problem: Not a bhvr tough to measure, count, control,
manipulate (... the imagery debate)
o One of the most private experiences we can have
Incredible controversy, during era of bhvr-ism
Dual Coding Theory
Paivio: words that represent concrete objects are
represented twice in memory (concrete ex. Tv remote,
computer can touch)
o Verbal/linguistic attributes
o Imaginal/abstract attributes
o Attributes related to visual representation of objects
Increases likelihood of recalling concrete items
Paired-association test: given a list of paired words, in each
pair the 1st word is called the stimulus & the 2nd word is called
the response, given time to study the words, during test phase
given 1st word & asked to give response
o “stimulus”-“response”
o Encoding : elephant - ?
o Conceptual peg hypothesis
o Results: when stimulus = concrete better performance
in concrete condition; whether stimulus concrete or
abstract, better at giving response if concrete than
abstract
o Proposes conceptual peg hypothesis: when have a
concrete stimulus, it serves as a peg on which you can
hang the 2nd response; precisely because concrete nouns
invoke images
Mental Rotation
Chronometric exploration of imagery
Conditions: Picture-plane rotations (mental rotations
involving a 2D rotation of the pic/page; bottom 2 pics) &
depth rotations (involve 3D rotation of the object itself in
space; the top 2 pics)
Mentally rotating 3D images
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Linear trend: More rotation needed takes longer
Potentially the picture-plane pairs took longer than the depth
rotation pairs but no significantly dif, so consider the same
results
Evidence that pl use visual imagery and are capable of
manipulating mental images
Mental Scanning
Steven Coslin: developed mental scanning expts
o Looking at how long it takes someone to mentally scan a
picture
o Elongated objects so could look at distance as an indep
variable
o Showed image, then removed it, had participants focus
on some particular pt on the mental image (ex. The roots
of the flower), then measure how long it took them to
answer Qs about other items in the pic (ex. Does the
flower have 2 leaves? Go further Does the flower have
petals?)
o The further you scan, the longer it takes to answer
Assuming time it takes to scan reveals something about the
way images represent spatial properties
Criticism: mental scanning could be like perception
o But actually, mental scanning could be more like
teleportation (same time to scan to anywhere), but what
if get distracted along the way? the distraction is what
could make answering take longer
If imagery is like perception:
o Further to scan, longer to respond
Encountering something interesting?
Mental Scanning
Removed “distraction”
Study map, then remove
Start: tree; finish: hill
Imagine a speck moving across the map in a straight line,
press a button when you arrive
o No distractions between the start & finish
Images seem to preserve spatial relations
Found as far as they had to go in the mental scan, that
correlated w their reaction time
o Linear trend
o Would be horizontal if teleportation
Imagines same distance btwn items as there is in real life
Imagery Debate
Finke’s principles of visual imagery
1. Implicitely encoded info can be obtained that was never
intentionally encoded
o Bieber vs. Cowell
o Still accessible to declarative memory
2. Perceptual equivalence imagery is fn’ally equivalent to
perception; similar mechs in the visual system
o We will come back to this
3. Spatial equivalence spatial arrangements of objects &
parts corresponds to images
o Evidence: Mental scanning spatial relationships kept
4. Transformational equivalence imagined & physical
transformations have same dynamic characteristics
o Mental rotation
o Relationship btwn tie & amt of rotation, like perception
Pylyshyn’s Critique belived visual imagery does not exist
1. Tacit knowledge (understood w/o being explicitely
stated) & demand characteristics & expter expectancy
effects
o Beliefs about the task responsible for the results, not
construction & manipulation of visual images
o Ex. Mental scanning description of task tells you what
the expter expect to happen
o Demand characteristics (participants’ side),
experimenter expectancy effects (expters’ side)
2. Imagery is epiphenomenal
o Images are a product of representation, not the
representation itself
3. Mech underlying imagery is not spatial but propositional
Demand Characteristics & Expter Expectancy Effects
Recruited 4 undergrad expters
o Each tested 18 participants
o Supervising mental rotation expts involving perceptual
or imagined primes
Shown or asked to imagine some item that they
would then have to mentally rotate (ex. Asked to
imagine or shown letter R)
o 2 expters: told to expect perceptual prime results >
imagined prime results
o 2 expts: to expect imagined prime result > perceptual
prime results
Can you guess the results?
o Participants performed as expected by each grp of
expters
Expt was on computer, the expters were only in the beginning
of the room for instruction
o But just this small interaction was enough to create
demand characteristics based on expectancy effects
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