PSY280H1 Lecture Notes - Horopter, Parallax, Dime (United States Coin)

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY280H1
CH10 PERCEIVING DEPTH & SIZE
Distance perception of various objects in environment based on two
dimensional image on retina
o Ex. N and F = 2 points on retina
represent points where rays of light have been reflected onto
the retina from the tree (N) and the house (F)
if only observing retinal name, no way determined distances for
points N and F in the environment
If expand to entire retinal image increase information
Still 2 dimensional image but 3-dimensional perception
CUT APPROACH TO DEPTH PERCEPTION information contained in two-
dimensional image enables perceive depth in the scene
o Identify info in retail image correlated w/ depth in the scene
o Ex. House covers Tree House greater distance (occlusion)
o Connection btwn cue and depth learned through previous experience
interacting w/ environment
After learning, automatic association btwn particular cues &
depth their presence implies 3 dimensional
Oculomotor Cue
OCULOMOTOR CUES cues based on ability to sense the position of our
eyes and the tension in our eye muscle; created by:
o CONVERGENCE the inward movement of the eyes that occurs when
looking at nearby objects
o ACCOMMODATION the change in the shape of the lens that occurs
when we focus on objects at various distances
Ex. the feeling of moving finger closer towards eyes, caused by
o 1. Changing the convergence angle as the eyes look inwards
o 2. Change shape of the lens as eye accommodates to focus near
o Opposite effect when moving finger away
Monocular Cue
MONOCULAR CUES cues that work with one eye; includes
o Accommodation, pictorial cues, motion-produced cues
PICTORIAL CUES depth information that can be depicted in a two-
dimensional picture ex. in a painting or a book
o OCCLUSION signal/cue that one object is in front of another
By one object hiding/partially hidden behind another
Hidden object = far away (ex. the mountains)
Doesn’t provide information about objects’ absolute distance,
only indicates relative distance between objects
o RELATIVE HEIGHT signal/cue that objects below the horizon and
have bases higher in the field are usually seen as being more distant
Ex. further motorcycle base higher than closer in picture
But both below the horizon
Objects above the horizon, lower base indicates more distance
o RELATIVE SIZE signal/cue that when two objects are equal size, one
farther will take up less of field of view
This cue depends on person’s knowledge of physical size
Ex. 2 motorcycles, further = smaller
o PERSPECTIVE CONVERGENCE parallel lines extend out from
observer, closer the lines = more distance
Ex. Road converge at the horizon
o FAMILIAR SIZE signal/cue that judge distance based on prior
knowledge of the sizes of objects
Ex. dime, quarter, half-dollar dime is closer than quarter
o ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE signal/cue suggest more distant
objects appear less sharp and often have slight blue hint
b/c farther away more air/particles hindering view
but foreground remains sharp & defined
Differs depending on environment b/c diff. atmosphere
Ex. in city more particles, rural less particles
o TEXTURE GRADIENT elements equally spaced in a scene appear
closely packed as distance increases
According to cue of Relative Size: more distant objects take up
less field of view exactly what happens o faraway elements in
texture gradient
o SHADOWS shadow associated w/ objects gives information of
object’s locations
Makes clear object’s location relative to the ground
Also enhances three-dimensionality of objects
Circles + Shadows = appear spherical
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Document Summary

Distance perception of various objects in environment based on two. Pictorial cues depth information that can be depicted in a two- dimensional picture ex. in a painting or a book dimensional image on retina: ex. N and f = 2 points on retina. Represent points where rays of light have been reflected onto the retina from the tree (n) and the house (f: occlusion signal/cue that one object is in front of another. By one object hiding/partially hidden behind another. Hidden object = far away (ex. the mountains) Doesn"t provide information about objects" absolute distance, If only observing retinal name, no way determined distances for only indicates relative distance between objects points n and f in the environment. If expand to entire retinal image increase information: relative height signal/cue that objects below the horizon and have bases higher in the field are usually seen as being more distant. Still 2 dimensional image but 3-dimensional perception.

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