PSY280H1 Lecture Notes - Mcgurk Effect, Frequency Distribution, Temporal Lobe

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Published on 12 Oct 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY280H1
PSY 280 – PERCEPTION M. NEIMEIER 10/03/12
MUSIC AND SPEECH PERCEPTION
Q. Explain the temporal code of sound frequency. What is coded? How is it coded
(what’s the proper scientific term for it)? What are the limits of temporal coding? How
could this limitation be overcome?
Complex sounds (cont’d from last lecture)
- Attack and decay of sound
oAttack: part of a sound during which amplitude increases (onset)
oDecay: Part of a sound during which amplitude decreases (offset)
Auditory Scene Analysis
- What happens in natural situations?
oAcoustic environment can be a busy place
oMultiple sound sources
- How does auditory system sort out these sources?
oSource segregation, or auditory scene analysis
- A number of strategies to segregate sound sources:
oSpatial separation between sounds; motion parallax
oSeparation on basis of sounds’ spectral or temporal qualities
oAuditory stream segregation: perception organization of a complex
acoustic signal into separate auditory events for which each stream is
heard as a separate event
- Gestalt law – “similarity”
oGerman for “form
oIn perception, a term introduced by a school of thought stressing that the
perceptual while could be greater than the sum of its parts
- Grouping by timbre
oTones that have increasing and decreasing frequencies, or tones that
deviate from rising/falling pattern “pop out” of sequence
- Grouping by onset
oHarmonics of speech sound or music
oGrouping different harmonics into a single complex tone
oRasch (1987) showed that it is much easier to distinguish two notes from
one another when onset of one precedes onset of other by very short time
oGestalt law of common fate
oDoes the bottle break?
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- Spectrogram: a pattern for sound analysis that provides a 3D display of intensity
as a function of time and frequency
oE.g., bouncing vs. breaking bottle
- Multisensory integration: vision (usually) helps audition
- Ventriloquist effect: an audio-visual illusion in which sound is misperceived as
emanating from a source that can be seen to be moving appropriately when it
actually emanates from a different invisible source
oVisual dominance for location
Continuity and Restoration Effects
- How do we know that listeners really hear a sound as continuous?
oPrinciple fo good continuation: in spite of itnerruptions, one can still
“hear” sound
oExperiments that use signal detection task 9e.g., Kluender and Jenison)
suggest that at some point restored missing sounds are encoded in brain
as if they were actually present!
- Restoration of complex sound (e.g., music, speech)
o“Higher-order” sources of information, not just auditory information
“The *eel fell off the car” (wheel)
“… the table” (meal)
Restoration Effect
- Noise helps comprehension
oEasier for people to reconstruct missing speech components when people
understand there to be interference
oSilence often confuses listeners
Music
- Music is a way to express thoughts and emotions
oPythagoras: numbers and music intervals
oSome clinical psychologists practice music therapy
- Musical notes
oSounds of music extend across a frequency range from about 25 to 4500
Hz
oPitch: the psychological aspect of sounds related mainly to the
fundamental frequency
- Octave: the interval between 2 sound frequencies having a ratio of 2:1
oExample: middle C (C4) vhas a fundamental frequency of 261.6 Hz; notes
that are one octave from middle C are 130.8 Hz (C3) and 523.2 Hz (C5)
oC3 (130.8 Hz) sounds more similar to C4 (261.6 Hz) than to E3 (164.8 Hz)
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Document Summary

Music and speech perception: explain the temporal code of sound frequency. Attack and decay of sound: attack: part of a sound during which amplitude increases (onset, decay: part of a sound during which amplitude decreases (offset) What happens in natural situations: acoustic environment can be a busy place, multiple sound sources. How does auditory system sort out these sources: source segregation, or auditory scene analysis. Gestalt law similarity : german for form , in perception, a term introduced by a school of thought stressing that the perceptual while could be greater than the sum of its parts. Grouping by timbre: tones that have increasing and decreasing frequencies, or tones that deviate from rising/falling pattern pop out of sequence. Spectrogram: a pattern for sound analysis that provides a 3d display of intensity as a function of time and frequency: e. g. , bouncing vs. breaking bottle.

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