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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Neurochemistry continued

6 Pages
127 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY290H1
Professor
Franca Placenza

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Nicotine
oDerived from the tobacco plant
oNicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Ionotropic
Has 5 binding sites on it
Excitatory (allows Na+ and some K+ in)
2.Nicotinic receptors
oFound on muscles
oFound in a variety of brain structures
Will only feel effects of nicotine if goes into the brain
EX = ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens
First 2 part of the dopamine's reward and reinforcement
Hippocampus & frontal cortex
Part is learning and memory
Substantia nigra and striatum
Facilitates dopamine production and increases in motor
behavior
(not prominent in humans)
3.Behavioral Effects
oHeightened alertness
oEnhanced performance on learning tasks
oImproved cognitive functioning
oEnhanced memory
oAddicting
oPhysical dependence
Opiates and Depressants
oMajor form of depressants
Depress the CNS
oDerived from the extracts of the opium poppy seeds
oMain active ingredient in opium is morphine
Many natural and synthetic opiates
EX = morphine, codeine (also found in poppy sac), heroin (gets
into brain quicker and metabolized in brain the same way as morphine),
methadone (synthetic form), oxycodone
4.Our brains also make opiates
oCalled endogenous opioid peptides
EX = Endorphins, enkephalins, dynorphins
oAre neurotransmitters
5.3 types of opiate receptor subtypes:
oMu ()
The addicting drugs bind with high affinity with the 'mu' receptors
www.notesolution.com
oDelta ()
oKappa ()
6.Found in various regions of the brain
oVTA and nucleus accumbens
Mesolimbic system
oPAG (part of the brain stem) and spinal cord
Spinal cord receptors have a blunting effect for oncoming pain
effects (INTERESTING FACT)
7.Behavioral Effects
oAnalgesia
oSedation
oEuphoria
oRespiratory depression
oConfusion and mental clouding
oLoss of anxiety and inhibition
oNausea/vomiting
Sedative - Hypnotics and Anxiolytics
oHypnotic = sleep inducing
oMajor depressants
oInclude:
Alcohol
Benzodiazepines
EX = Valium (to help people sleep)
Barbiturates
oProperties:
Anxiolytic
Anticonvulsant
Anesthesia
8.Neural Mechanisms
oAll share similar mechanism of action = GABA(a)
oBinds to benzodiazepines and barbiturates
When benzodiazepines or barbiturates bind with receptor, it does
nothing
Must bind with binding site along with GABA to produce effect
(creates
a larger inhibition)
oActs to increase the affinity(how well a neurotransmitter fits into the
receptor site)
of GABA on the GABA binding site
oAlcohol could have its own binding site
Has multitude mechanisms of action
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Nicotine o Derived from the tobacco plant o Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor Ionotropic Has 5 binding sites on it Excitatory (allows Na+ and some K+ in) 2. Nicotinic receptors o Found on muscles o Found in a variety of brain structures Will only feel effects of nicotine if goes into the brain EX = ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens First 2 part of the dopamines reward and reinforcement Hippocampus & frontal cortex Part is learning and memory Substantia nigra and striatum Facilitates dopamine production and increases in motor behavior (not prominent in humans) 3. Behavioral Effects o Heightened alertness o Enhanced performance on learning tasks o Improved cognitive functioning o Enhanced memory o Addicting o Physical dependence Opiates and Depressants o Major form of depressants Depress the CNS o Derived from the extracts of the opium poppy seeds o Main active ingredient in opium is morphine Many natural and synthetic opiates EX = morphine, codeine (also found in poppy sac), heroin (gets into brain quicker and metabolized in brain the same way as morphine), methadone (synthetic form), oxycodone 4. Our brains also make opiates o Called endogenous opioid peptides EX = Endorphins, enkephalins, dynorphins o Are neurotransmitters 5. 3 types of opiate receptor subtypes: o Mu () The addicting drugs bind with high affinity with the mu receptors www.notesolution.com
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