PSY290H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Fourth Ventricle, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Parasympathetic Nervous System

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23 Sep 2012
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Neuroanatomy
Lecture 2, September 18
Nervous Systems
o Central Nervous System
2 Main parts:
Brain
o There are 12 Cranial Nerves
o They l eave from the brain stem and the forebrain.
o Each has a different function and functional organisation
Spine
o In between each of the vertebrae, there is a spinal nerve above
and one below, making 31 spinal nerves
o Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Efferent (“going-away”) nerves
o Connects with skin and muscles to connect with outside world
Afferent (“coming –to”) nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
Afferent nerves
o Come intor the spinal cord and brain
Efferent nerves (separated anatomically)
o Sympathetic nervous system
Causes rapid release of energy such as in fight or flight
reactions
A release of energy for re/action
o Parasympathetic nervous system
Accumulation of energy by way of the digestive tract
The storage of energy
The cerebral ventricles
o Originate from 2 major spaces
The 2 lateral ventricles within the forebrain
The third ventricle in the diencephalon (sp??)
An aqueduct that carries liquid down is close to the Fourth ventricle
Coming out of the Fourth ventricle, there is the Central canal
Neural pathways
o The organisation of neurons
Cell body (Soma)
Where the nucleus of the cell is found
Nucleus = where the DNA of the cell is located
Synapses extend from the cell body
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Dendrites are found at the tips of the synapses that receives info form other
neurons
There is also an axon that sends information to other cells, that can be either
very short or the length of the entire body
There can be myelinated (fatty) sheath that is found around the axon of the cell.
This is actually its own cell, not a component of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: has no protein bumps on them
Rough ones: have ribosomes where messanger DNA is turned into
proteins
Golgi complex: pinches off pieces of membranes for making synaptic
vesicles
o They can be transported down the axons
The mitochondria
o Like separate cells with their on DNA and a separate system
Cell membranes
o Made up of lipid membranes (2 layers)
o Has a series of channel proteins that allows the flow of ions and
specialised proteins of sorts
o Types of neurons
Unipolar neurons
Typical sensory neuron from the skin
One long axon
There is a cell body that has no dendrites
An axon that bypasses the cell body
Cell body in the dorsal route ganglion
Bipolar neurons
Bipolar because there is an axon coming from the source and extending
from the cell body
Connects rods and cones with the sensory neurons within the brain
Multipolar neurons
Many dendrites and one axon
Multipolar interneuron
A small cell body
Several dendrites, but no axon at all
Much less complicated
o Within the CNS, there are many types of Gleol cells (sp>)
Oligodendrocyte
Has a few dendrite-like arms
They do not have synapses, but form myelin sheats around axons.
Once the dendrites form, they slowly grow and wrap around the axons
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