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Lecture

Lecture 1 -Sept 8 2008


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY311H1
Professor
Almas

Page:
of 6
PSY311: Lecture #1
sept, 8th, 2008
Notes
x socialization: the process by which individuals acquire the belief, values and behaviours
considerered desirable or appropriate by their culture or subculture
x regulate behaviour
x personal growth
x perpetuates the existing order
x baby biographies
x a detailed record of an infant's growth and development over a period of time
x parsimonious
x concise, uses few explanatory principles
x falsifiability
x capable of generating predictions which can be confirmed or disconfirmed
x heuristic
x builds on existing knowledge and continue to generate testable hypothesis
x original sin
x children are inherently selfish egoists who must be controlled by society
x innate purity
x infants are born with an intuitive sense of right and wrong that is often misdirected by the
demands and restrictions of society
x tabula rasa
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motives are acquired through experience
x activity/passivity issue
x debate among developmental theorists about whether children are active contributors to
their own development or passive recipients of environmental influence
x continuity/discontinuity issue
x whether developmental changes are best characterized as gradual and quantitative or abrupt
and qualitative
x quantitative change: change in size, ie grow taller.
x qualitative change: change in form, ie. change into frog from tadpole
x developmental stages
x a distinct phase within a larger sequence of development; a period characterized by a
particular set of abilities, motive, behaviours, or emotions that occur together and form a
coherent pattern
x structured interview/questionaire
x same questions asked everytime for everyone
x clinical method
x interview type in which the next question asked depends on the answers provided by the
participants previously
x structured observation
x an observation method in which the investigator cues the behaviour of interest and observes
participants' responses in a laboratory
x time sampling
x procedure in which an investigator records the frequencies with which individuals display
particular behaviours during the brief time interval that each participant is observed
x ethnography
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x method in which researcher seeks to understand a culture via extensive observations and
notes
x field experiment
x an experiment that takes place in a naturalistic setting such as the home, the school, or a
playground
x ecological validity
x state of affairs in which the findings of one's research are an accurate representation of
processes that occur in the natural environment
Designs for Studying Development
x cross sectional design
x subjects from different age groups are studied at the same point in time
x cohort: group of ppl who are the same age who experienced the same cultural ,
environmental/ historical events while growing up
x cohort effect
x any effect observed b/w age groups is b/c of their respective environmental backgrounds
as opposed to true development
x longitudinal design
x group of subjects is studied repeatedly over a period of month or years
x selective attrition
x nonrandom loss of participants during a study, resulting in a nonrepresentative sample
x cross generation problem
x b/c the study is long term any conclusions only apply to the current cohort being studied
x sequential design
x subjects from different age groups are studied repeatedly over a period of month or years
x microgenetic design
x children are observed extensively over a limited time period when a developmental change
is thought to occur
x cross-cultural comparison
x compares the development of ppl from different cultural or subcultural backgrounds
Chapter 2
z psychosexual theory
c maturation of sex instinct underlies stages of personality development, and that how parents
manage children's instinctual impulses will determine the traits children come to display
c instinct
inborn biological force that motivates a particular response or class of responses
c eros
instincts to survive ie. hunger, sex, air
c thanatos
self-destructive instincts ie. arson, agression etc.
z id
c part of personality driven by instincts
z ego
c rational component of personality
z superego
c component of personality consisting of one's internalized moral standards
z identification
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c child's tendency to emulate another person, usually the same-sex parent
z fixation
c development fixed at a particular stage
z Psychosocial theory
c theory of development that emphasis on sociocultural rather than sexual conflicts in 8 stages
z behaviourism
c all nurture, psychology should be based on overt viewable behaviours rather than inner
workings of the human psyche
z deferred imitation
c reproduction of a modeled activity that has been witnessed at some point in the past
z verbal mediator
c verbal encoding of modeled behaviour that the observer stores in memory
z environmental determinism
c notion that children are passive creatures who are modeled by their environments
z reciprocal determinism
c flow of influence b/w children and their environment is a 2 way street; the environment may
affect the child, but the child's behaviour will also influence the environment
z behavioural schemes
c organized patterns of behaviour that are used to represent and respond to objects and
experiences
z symbolic schemes
c internal mental symbols that one use to represent experience
z operational schemes
c schemes that utilize cognitive operations to transform objects of thought and to reason
logically
z organization
c inborn tendency to combine and integrate available schemes into coherent systems or bodies
of knowledge
z adaptation
c inborn tendency to adjust to the demands of the environment
c assimilation
children interpret new experiences by incorporating into their existing schemes
c accommodation
modify existing schemes in order to incorporate or adapt to new experiences
c disequilibrium
contradictions b/w ones thought and reality; leads to accommodation
z invariant stages
c the proceeding stage must occur to advance to the next stage
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z sensorimotor stage (0-2 yr)
c relying on behavioural schemes to adapt to the environment
c primary circular reactions: doing things to self
c secondary circular reactions: doing things to external objects
c tertiary circular reactions: exploration scheme devised new methods of acting on an object
to see it they produce interesting results
c inner experimentation: solving simple problems in the mental level
c object permanence
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