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Lecture 4

Lecture 4-Temperament and Emotional Development Sept 29


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY311H1
Professor
Almas
Lecture
4

Page:
of 3
PSY311: Lecture #4
Temperament & Emotional Development
Sept, 29th, 2008
Introduction to emotions
heart rate
galvanic skin response
goal is to get close to stimuli that bring about positive emotions
discrete emotions theory
specific emotions as being biologically programmed
accompanied by a distinct set of bodily and facial cues
see emotions early in life
emotions are evolutionary adaptive (comes mainly from Darwin)
ie. infant crying will lead to infant being taken care of via food, comfort etc.
happiness, sadness, anger, fright
functionalist approach to emotional development
emotions are goal related
our emotions help us achieve a goal
do not believe emotions are present at birth, but are learned
learned through social experiences
parents guide and teach
Development of Emotions
basic emotions
develop early in life (infants around 2month)
thought to be innate
social smile
interaction (smile) with caregiver
reciprocated by the caregiver and reinforces the smile
fear
6 month
stranger anxiety
fearful response to stranger
separation anxiety
infant is separated from primary caregiver
anger and sadness from negative stimuli/frustration
ie. still face procedure
- complex emotions
emotions relating to self (self-conscious)
if parent emphasis the negative more often, the child will feel more ashamed and embarrassed
on the other hand if parent emphasis the positive more often, then the child will feel more pride
in their accomplishments and relatively less embarrassment and shame when they do something
wrong
as kids gets older they will internalize other ppl's reactions so they will feel the feeling even if
the parent / others is not around when they do some activity that elicit a specific emotion
as kids gets older they will be able to experience positive and negative emotions at the same
time
during adolescence, hormonal levels influence the emotional
www.notesolution.com
Development cont. (added)
Other's emotions
reference mother and her emotional responses (to obtain own emotion)
social referencing (the above is called)
referencing those in your social circle to see how you should experience /respond
use emotions to communicate with others
ie. beginning of still face experiment
ie. crying to signal distress/anger
- role of parents
emotion talk
parent reason the child's emotional experience and relay it back to them
meta-emotion philosophy
emotion-coaching philosophy
aware of their own and their child's motions and view negative emotions as opportunity
for teaching
can talk emotions in a differentiated way
help their own children to learn about their emotions and how to regulate it
emotion-dismissing philosophy
unaware of low intensity emotions (ie. when someone is feeling a little bit sad/anger)
views negative emotions as toxic
quick to criticizes negative emotions (ie. O you are not that sad! you are fine)
Assessment of children's emotions
by telling the child a hypothetical story and ask how the person in the story would feel
done by pictures of faces or by asking the child to act out their feeling with dolls and puppets
ask the parent to talk to child about past/future emotional events (ie. death of family member
etc.)
for past experience the coaching philosophy is better for the child, whereas for the future events
the dismissing philosophy is better for the child
Regulating Emotions
emotion regulating
adjust emotions to the appropriate level of intensity (ie. appropriate to the context) in order to
accomplish your goals
necessary skill for social interaction
feelings
physiological reactions associated with feelings
ie. faces don't go bright red
emotion-related cognition
ie. fighting at bar example
behaviour
strategies for emotion regulation
thumb-sucking
turning away/moving away
distraction
talking through situation
what Vygotsky had in mind for scaffolding (mentor, mentee)
Regulating Emotions Cont.
www.notesolution.com
emotional display rules ......
ie. certain cultures prefer ppl who are excited vs. conservative
hiding true emotions and displaying the appropriate emotions ability begins to appear around
age 3
by age 5 children are expert at it
example of getting a ugly sweater from grandma
Research on Emotion Regulation
Lunkenheiner
coaching and dismissing philosophy
looked at during family interaction task
interested how the philosophy related to emotional regulation and kid's behavioural problems (if
any)
kids b/w 8-11 age
sample = 90 kids
instructed parents to talk to kids about 3 emotional events
1. positive family experience
2. difficult family experience
3. a time when the child misbehaved
videotaped the family interactions
coded/looked for specific examples of either the coaching/dismissing philosophy
gave children questionnaire for emotional regulation and behavioural problems
results: emotional coaching did not offer any direct benefit to child's positive outcome, instead
it acted as as a buffer against negative outcomes (coaching act as buffer for dismissing)
- Shipman et al.
look at cases of different philosophy style and child's emotional regulatory status who were
abused
6-12 yr olds
40 cases of abused kids and 40 cases of non abused
measured emotional regulation of questionnaire
abuse was assessed via questionnaire, and checklist (but parent's who act in abusive ways can't
recognize their own abusive style)
children were asked to talk to their mother about a time where they felt ______ (various
emotions)
mothers were told to respond to the child as if this had occurred at home
they were to talk minimum of 1 minute to a maximum of 5
coded / looked at specific behaviour that validated / invalidated the child's emotion
interviewed the mothers separately to assess the typical way mothers respond to the child in real
life experiences
results: in general the abused kids demonstrated fewer adaptive emotional regulation skills, and
the abusive mothers engaged less validation, emotional coaching and more invalidation in
response to child's emotion
direct negative effect of dismissing philosophy
morris, silk (not tested)
Emotional Competence and Social Competence
expressivity
-
www.notesolution.com