PSY311H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Social Learning Theory, Longitudinal Study, Observational Learning

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16 Aug 2010
School
Department
Course
Professor
Lecture 9 & 10
Aggression & Antisocial Conduct
Nov 10th, 2008
Paper
- not argumentative paper
๎€ provide overview or summary of the current state of research
๎€ after summary, make suggestion for the next study that should be made
Peer Relations
๎€ family and peer relations are interdependent
๎€ the contribution of each varies across development
๎€ infants
๎€ smile, babble towards infants of the same age
๎€ sharing of objects
๎€ 1st yr: reciprocal exchanges
๎€ back and forth
๎€ early prosocial behaviour ยฑ ie. sharing, helping
๎€ 2yr
๎€ coordinatedd interactions
๎€ imitation (mutual)
๎€ verbal
๎€ most frequently occured to familiar kids (same age, friends)
๎€ aggression
๎€ proactive aggression frequently are at risk for developing external delinquency
behaviour
๎€ Preschool
๎€ shift from non-social play to parrallel -> associative -> cooperative play
๎€ talked about in text
๎€ cooperative
๎€ kids work together towards mutual goal
๎€ kids playing style is not indicative of future outcome
๎€ gender segregation
๎€ preference to same sex age mates
๎€ Middle Childhood
๎€ all kids exposed to similar age children b/c they are going to school
๎€ start to form peer groups: group of kids who does the same activities on a regular basis
๎€ cliques: smaller group of kids than peer groups, and group membership is very unstable, kids
can be part of more than 1 clique at the same time
๎€ prosocial behaviour increase
๎€ Adolescence
๎€ bulk of freetime with friends
Peer Relations Research
๎€ peer nominations
๎€ asked to choose 3 best friends and see if the kids chosen also chose them
๎€ interviews
๎€ rate who they liked the most and least
๎€ Direct observations
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๎€ brought into the lab and observe the interactions
๎€ Jen Megs, Class Roman
๎€ relationship b/w positive peer relations and adolescence substance use and delinquent behaviour
๎€ aked gr. 7 students to fill out questionnaires
๎€ ie. how many time have you drank beer, champaigne, etc.
๎€ how well do you know your friends etc.
๎€ longitudinal study, collected questionnaire once every year for 4 yrs
๎€ substance use and involvement with peers and dating increased from gr.7 ยฑ gr. 10
๎€ substance use is positively related to peer relations over time
๎€ conclusion: drinking more = more friends
๎€ research focus on friendship and general acceptance by peer group
๎€ friendships: mutual enjoyable and reciprocal
๎€ start off as kid who enjoy the same activities in preschool year
๎€ as kids gets older they are more concerned with loyalty, trust and other psychological constructs
๎€ they will attach this to their expectations of their friends
๎€ adolescences are more concerned with intimacy (sharing secrets etc.)
๎€ friends become another secure base
๎€ kids who are more securely attached has higher quality friendships
๎€ consequence of having close friends
๎€ more prosocial
๎€ agreeable, social, active
๎€ overtly emotional do not have close friends
๎€ relational oriented strategies
๎€ goal is maintain relationship
๎€ fulfils intimacy and companionship need
๎€ increase in self-esteem
๎€ better attitude toward school
๎€ prepares us for later intimate relationship (romantic partners)
๎€ friends provide support
๎€ being a good friend helps us develop empathy and elicit prosocial behaviour
๎€ but kids who are aggressive and antisocial also make friends with the same character which
leads to reinforcement of delinquency
๎€ negative peer groups: begin as early as preschool and are well established by adolescence
๎€ kids who do not have close friends do not have regulating emotion skills but this can only be
learned through friends
๎€ Parental influence
๎€ monitor interaction b/w kids and help resolve conflicts
๎€ help set up environments where kids can interact with each other, play dates etc.
๎€ indirect monitoring is related to better outcome (how well kids were liked in preschool) than
direct monitoring
๎€ but this research does not predict cause, it might be the other way around, ie. kid is less liked, so
parent must be inside the room
๎€ coach kids on social interaction
๎€ parents who are negative and angry have kids who act the same way
๎€ Russle & Finny
๎€ 4-5yr kids
๎€ had parents act different ways in the lab
๎€ 3 kids playing on the floor
๎€ mom had 3 minutes to provide their own kid with instruction to help them engage in play
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Document Summary

Not argumentative paper provide overview or summary of the current state of research after summary, make suggestion for the next study that should be made. Peer relations family and peer relations are interdependent the contribution of each varies across development infants. 1st yr: reciprocal exchanges smile, babble towards infants of the same age sharing of objects back and forth early prosocial behaviour ie. sharing, helping. 2yr imitation (mutual) coordinatedd interactions verbal most frequently occured to familiar kids (same age, friends) aggression proactive aggression frequently are at risk for developing external delinquency behaviour. Peer relations research peer nominations asked to choose 3 best friends and see if the kids chosen also chose them interviews rate who they liked the most and least. Direct observations www. notesolution. com brought into the lab and observe the interactions. 4-5yr kids had parents act different ways in the lab. Peer acceptance assessed in the peer group context ask peers to rate each other.

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