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Lecture 6

Lecture 6(3). PSY320H1FOctober16th2012.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY320H1
Professor
Ashley Waggoner Denton
Lecture
6

Page:
of 2
PSY320H1F: October 16th, 2012
Tormala et al.
- When people resist persuasion, they sometimes become less certain of their initial
attitudes
Study 1:
Prediction: all participants would resist persuasion but hold their post-resistance attitude
with varying levels of certainty depending on condition
1. Led to believe that their university had recently begun to consider the implementations of
senior comprehension exams as a graduation requirement
Intended to be counterattitudinal
2. Read persuasive messages in favour of the implementation of exams
3. Randomly assigned to one of three counterargument conditions:
a) 10 seconds condition
b) 60 seconds condition
c) Control condition: did not receive persuasive message and not asked to counterargue
Led to believe that most students can finish in the time provided minimize
external attribution for not completing the task
4. Reported their attitudes toward the comprehensive exam policy
5. Completed the attitude certainty measure
6. Behavioural intentions were assessed
7. Asked them how deeply they thought about the proposal, how much effort they put into it,
and how personally involved they were
Results:
- No differences in attitudes across conditions
- 10 s condition less certain than 60 s condition
- No difference in letter-writing intentions
- Attitude-behavioural intentions: attitude significantly predicted letter-writing intentions
in 60 s and controls, but not 10 s
People become less certain of their attitudes after resisting persuasion if they are unable
to fully articulate their counterarguments
Study 2:
Prediction: when participants resisted using what they were led to believe were weak
counterarguments, they would show evidence of decreased attitude certainty
- Same as study 1 but no constraint on coming up with counterarguments
- Participants were given false feedback regarding the quality of their counterarguments
- Reported attitude after learning about the comprehension exam policy (before
presentation of persuasive messages)
Results:
- Participants in both condition generated the same amount of counterarguments
- Participants led to believe that their counterarguments were weak less certain in their
attitudes
Being led to believe that one based ones resistance on weak counterarguments casts
doubt on the attitude that has just been defended
PSY320H1F: October 16th, 2012
Study 3:
Prediction: attitude certainty would be particularly likely to decrease when people were led to
believe they generated weak counterarguments against a nonexpert
- Similar to Study 2, but source credibility was manipulated and removed Time 1 measures
and introduced a control
Results:
- Tendency to generate more counterarguments against the high credibility source
- No attitude differences across conditions
- Resisted using strong counterarguments more certain
- Resisted a high credibility source more certain
- Resisted a nonexpert poorly less certain
Study 4:
Prediction: people are most susceptible to a follow-up persuasive attach when they believed
they had generated weak counterarguments against a nonexpert
- Replication of Study 3, with few modifications:
No control
Included several new measures
Presented participants with a second persuasive message after the experiment
Results:
- No difference in attitudes across conditions
- Strong counterargument more certain
- Resisted high source credibility more certain
- Rated their counterarguments stronger in the strong feedback condition
- Rated their counterarguments stronger in the high source credibility condition
- Attitude changed more in response to a second message when people initially resisted a
low-credibility source
- Attitude changed more in response to a second message when people think they
generated weak counterarguments in response to the first message
- Weak counterargument + low source credibility most attitude change
The only one that showed significant change from Time 1 to Time 2
- Time 1 attitudes predicted Time 2 attitudes
- Source credibility & counterargument feedback had marginally significant effect on Time
2 attitudes
Low source credibility Time 2 attitudes more favourable
Weak counterarguments Time 2 attitudes more favourable