PSY321H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Ethnocentrism, Motivation, Dependent And Independent Variables

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Published on 17 Apr 2013
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY321H1
Professor
Page:
of 6
Lecture 1
cross cultural psy - perspective
cultural psy - sub discipline in psy that uses cross cultural perspective to examine issues and concepts in
psy
cultural psy is young subdiscipline bc traditionally psy looked at universals - assumption that human
mind operated according to universal laws; any diff btw cultures is due to noise in the data
cross cultural research - research that looks at diff in behavior across cultures
etics - psy processes that are consistent across cultures -> universals
emics - psy processes that are diff across cultures -> culture specific
is psy process universal or culture specific? - ie; is marriage universal?
o depends on level of abstraction - more abstract, more likely to be universal
o depends on type of evidence
accessibility universal
concept exists across cultures; has same meaning and used to the same degree
ie: social facilitation
functional universal
concepts that exist across cultures; has the same meaning but not used to the
same extent
ie: social punishment; attractiveness to similarity
existential universal
concept that exist across cultures; doesn’t have the same meaning or used to the
same extent
ie; intrinsic motivation
nonuniversal
concept doent exist across cultures
ie; abacus reasoning is culture specific
goals in cultural psy
o test or extend the generalizability of existing theories
test the theories to see whether the processes that were assumed to be universal ->are
they actually universals?
most studies use weird samples -> not generalizable
weird samples are more likely to fall for line illusion -> similar to what see in corners
of the rooms
o examine other cultures to discover variations in behavior that might be diff from what is seen in
one’s own culture
allows to become aware of own culture
allows to become less ethnocentric - judge others according to your own cultural
standards
o integrate findings in order to better understand universals
o resolve intercultural conflicts - consequence rather than law
lecture 2
greenfield examined extraversion across 2 cultures -> zinat (mexico) and north americans
used surveys that were validated using north American samples
items in the samples were independent and questions were asked in slightly diff ways
zinat had diff expectations of how survey would proceed
just bc a method is valid in one culture doesn’t mean it will be valid in another
cultural psy is interested in diff subfield of psy ->will use methods associated with that subfield
ie: use surveys to measure extraversion
will inherit problems associated with particular method
ie; socially desirable responding on surveys
bc comparing across cultures -> will get new problems
ie: people’s understanding of how surveys work, conversational norms are diff -> will influence how
participants respond and the type of data that will get
in cross cultural psy not only looking at cross cultural diff in terms of concepts (ie: diff in terms of
average levels of self esteem) but also the relationships btw the concepts (ie: diff in terms of how self
esteem influences academic achievement)
the cultures are chosen based on the variable of interest
ie want to study the relationship btw collectivism and self ->chose culture that differ in terms of
collectivism
theory should guide which cultures will choose -> will be able to interpret the results if use theories,
otherwise will not just the diff btw cultures but not why they exist
cultural level studies - looking at cultural diff in terms of average
independent level measure of culture - measurement of cultural values; ie triandasis - measures level of
collectivism and individualism
lecture 2
greenfield examined cross cultural diff in terms of diff personality traits
compared zin and north americans in terms of extraversion
used surveys that were validates using north American samples
zin had diff expectations of how surveys would proceed
surveys were not a valid (appropriate) measure of extraversion in zin
if the measurement is valid and reliable in one culture, doesn’t mean it will be valid and reliable in
another culture
cross cultural psy is interested in ques from diff subdisciplines
uses methods from those diff disciplines -> ie using surveys to examine extraversion
there are problems associated with each method ->ie socially desirable responding in surveys
by virtue of comparing diff cultures -> new problems
participants might have diff convo norms; might not understand what they are asked for ->will
influence the response of the participants and the type of data that will get

Document Summary

Nonuniversal concept doent exist across cultures ie; abacus reasoning is culture specific. Most studies use weird samples -> not generalizable. Greenfield examined extraversion across 2 cultures -> zinat (mexico) and north americans. Will inherit problems associated with particular method. Greenfield examined cross cultural diff in terms of diff personality traits. Uses methods from those diff disciplines -> ie using surveys to examine extraversion. By virtue of comparing diff cultures -> new problems. Which cultures to study: might choose random cultures - will only obtain diff btw cultures, cross cultural psy is not only interested in finding out diff btw cultures but also why diff exist - Studied baka kids and north american kids; both had similar performance of smarties task -> theory of mind if accessibility universal. Most psy study participants from their own culture. Marcus and haliama live in the culture - time consuming and costly.