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Lecture 7

PSY323H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Smocking, Men Only, Homicide

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Noreen Stuckless

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Mental and Physical Health:
Some sex differences are evident:
Women are more likely than men to seek psychotherapy
Despite Longer life span, they are more likely to seek medical help as well
Graphs on slides.
How can gender differences be explained?
Physical and mental health are not mutually exclusive
Women and men are not all alike, both between groups and within groups
Each has a blend of strengths and weaknesses that affect physical and
psychological well-being
It is difficult to look at psychological and physical health completely
E.g. stress can cause problems for both the mind and the body.
How one copes with stress influences health
Current Research on slides
General Health: variables: Sleep, weight, etc.
Some specific health concerns/illnesses: cancer, diabetes, cold, etc.
Gender Differences:
Males are more likely than females to suffer injury or death prenatally or
during the birth process
Women and men suffer from and die of different illnesses, to some

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Men have shorter life expectancies than women; this difference is
largest in developed countries. In Canada (2016) females’ life expectancy
is 83.9; males’ is 78.69.
Pregnancy and childbirth are significant causes of death for women in
developing countries, but not in developed countries
Men are more likely than women to die by suicide or homicide.
However, women are more likely to attempt suicide. Why? Men use
guns, women use pills.
Across all age groups, women report more physical illness symptoms,
take more medication, and visit the doctor more than men do
On average, women are shorter, lighter, and less muscular than men;
however, women develop strength quite rapidly under training
Women can outperform men on physical tasks that demand endurance
Cardiac Health:
-Affects both women and men.
-affected by diet, smocking, etc. Women were “catching up” a couple years
ago. (More smoking, more working, more fatty diets).
Current comparison: Same levels of heart disease.
Research and clinical experience has shown that women may have different
-different pain
Men often have acute sharp ahha moment pain and they fall.
Women have nausea, jaw pain, pain in the arm, pain in the back, less acute
quick symptoms.
These are often not recognized or diagnosed.

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Treatment may not be sufficient.
Current Studies:
Mosca et al (2004)
-500 doctor’s records for recommendations were evaluated.
Evaluated men’s and women’s records for recommendations.
The high risk for women and men was the same
Women were 40% Less likely to be diagnosed as high risk
Women less likely to recommend treatments “that have been shown to
significantly reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes.” (i.e.: cholesterol
lowering medication, etc.)
Second study (Mosca et al., 2004)
1.1 million patient database, Identified over 8000 women at high risk of
a heart attack. Then Followed them for 3 years to see how their
cholesterol was managed. Only 1/3 who should have been taking
cholesterol drugs were taking them. At the beginning only 7% had
desirable cholesterol levels. Three years later, still only 12%.
Older women are more likely.
Very few men get breast cancer 10% are men
Only 10% directly attributable to genes. BRCA1 & BRCA2 gene carriers.
Possible cause: HRT (Hormone replacement therapy). (Recall: good for the
heart in notes, when good research goes bad).
Other causes:
Environmental factors: high fat diets, alcohol consumption, smoking
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