PSY333H1 Lecture Notes - Breast Self-Examination, Rectal Examination, Blood Test

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Published on 29 May 2012
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PSY333 MAY 28, 2012
HEALTH ENHANCING BEHAVIOURS
CHAPTER 4
EXERCISE
Physical activity any sketal muscle contraction that results in an increased energy expenditure any
physical activity even fidgeting will use energy and burn calorie s
Exercise repetitive phy act or movement aimed at improving or mainting fitness or health
1. Type identidies the physicological system used in a part activity aerobic, strength, endurance
and flexibility
2. Frequency describes how much activity is performed over a period of time
3. Intensity describes load imposed on physiological systems how much word does each phys
system have to do to perform activity some heavy some lighter walking water more then
surface so walking stairs is more intense
4. Duration temperal length of physical activity how long time
Does type matter
- Many diff types of exercise or physical activity..but physiologically there a re 5 forms of exercise
- Resistrance realted first 2
- Isometric contract muscle group against immovable object without movement in body
(improves muscle strength) no movement in body improve muscel strength holding an
object planking gravity u need to hold it contraction of muscle in arms and core but not
moving if to move and out of (improves muscle srenght)
- 2. Isotonic push up place resistance on muscle by moving muscle groups example weigh
lifting (improves stetgh and endureance)
- 3. Isokinetic place resistance that overloasds muscle groups through complete range of motion
with variable resistance, needs special equipment (best for strength and resistance)
Other two forms
1. Aerobic
2. Anaerobic
- Energy for exercise comes from buring glucose and fatty acids can be in the prescence of
oxygen or not before oxygen circulate in muscle or with oxygen in muscle
- Aerobic sustained exercise, prolonged oxy use high intensity, long duration, high endurance
stimulates and strengthens heart and lungs improves bodies oxy usage
- Examples jogging, bicycling and swimming prolonged high intensits
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Anearboci high intensity, short duration, low endurance creates deficit in 02 example is sprinting
fast short distance
Exercise physiology
- Ability to perform physical work is dependet upon the ability of muscle to transform chemical
energy into mechanical energy
How exercise work
- Muscles source of energy that keeps everything going is atp adenosine triphospahte
- Biochemical way to store and use energy adenine nucleotide bound to three phosphates
energy stored in the bond between the second and third phosphate group
- Lift skin and show muscle each muscle made up of strands of muscle and inside is made up of
many more strands and inside two proteins actin and myosin work together to casue muscles to
contract myosin bulbious head along strand bobs move actin down and casue muscle group
to come together need atp
How does create atp
- Several systems to create atp
- Work together in phases same time simultanelosy dif forms of exercise use different systems,
so a sprinter is getting atp in a completely different way from a marathon runner
- Atp come from three different biochemical systems in the muscel in this order phosphagen
system
Phosphagen system
- Muscle cells contain high energy phosphate componund called creatin ephospahte
- Phosphate group is removed from creatin phosphate by an enzyme called creatine kinase and is
transferred to adp to form atp
- Atp levels and creatine phosphagte levels = phosphogen system supply energy needs of
working muscle at a high rate but only for 8 to 10 seconds
- Small supply of energy from phosphagen system only last 8 to 10 seconds
Glycogen lactic acid system
- Muscles have big reserves of a complex carb called glycogen (chain of glucose molecules)
- Cells splits glycogen into glucose --- uses anaerobic metabolism (anaerobic means without oxy)
to make atp and a byproduct called lactic acid from the glucose
- 12 chemical reactions take place to make atp under this process, so it supplies atp at a slower
rate then phospahgen system produce atp lasts 90 seconds
- 12 steps instead of one ability to create energy from it is slower then phosphagen system
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- Amount of exercise limited but substrates
- Draw on it for 1 min and a half
Aerobic respiration
- When oxygen is present glucose can be completely broken down into a carbon dioxide and
water in a process called aerobic respiration
- Glucose can come from three different places remaining glycogen supplies in muscles
- Breakdown of liver glycogen into glucose wich gets to working mskce muscle through
bloodstrram
- Absorption of glucose from food in the instestine which gets wto working muscel throught the
bloodstreaqm
Cont
- In extreme case like starvation proteins can also be broken down int aa and used to make atp
- First carbs fats and protein
- Aerobic resp would use carbs first then faats and finally proteins
- Produces atp at the slowest rate of the three systems
- Supply atp for several hrs longer
- Length of exercise and proportion of energy deleviery process enage
- Creatine lot in short time of energy
- Aneraobic glycosic peaks at 40 and slows
- Aerobic 30 to 40 slow and slope up and sustain for long time depending on fat carb and proten
Type
- Sustained nature of aerobic exercise produces health beefits
- Other forms of exercise are satisfying in theor own way but have less effect on overall fitness -
Note on cal
- Number of calories food is a easure of how much energythat food processes
- A gram carb 4, prot 4, fat 9
- Our bodies burn calories through metabolic processes
- Enzymes break down carbs into glucose and other sugars, fats into glycerol and fatty acids and
proteins into aa
- The mole transported through bloodstream to cells where they are either absorbed for
immediate use or sent on to the finalstage of metbalosm in whichc theyare reacted with oxygen
to release their store energy
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