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Lecture 3

PSY333H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning, Disulfiram

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Nevena Simic

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PSY333 Lecture 3
Today is about health promotion. Hand sanitizing.
Health promotion: Precess enabling people to increaser control over,
and to imporove, their health
Good health is collective and personal
- individual: develop good health habits early in life and have
them continue through adulthood
- medical practitioner: teach people how to acvhieve this
lifestyle and help those ‘at risk’ teacher educator, educatoe
about proper and good health habits to achieve optimal health.
- Psychologist: development of interventions to help people
practice healthy behaviours and chage poor ones.
- Community/Nation general emphasis on good health.
Patterns of disease changed dramatically over the past 70 years.
Perevalence of acute diseases has gone down but the preventable
disorders have gone up.
Clear role of behavioural facrots in disease
Approximately ½ deaths in Canada are caused by modifiable behaviours
*smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity).
Health behaviours are behaviours undertaken to enhance or maintain
our health, becomes HEALTH HABIT, health related behaviour that is so
well established that we perform it almost automatically. Habits develop
in childhood and stabilize around 11 or 12. i.e wearing a seatbelt
- developed initially b/c reinforced by specific positive outcomes
eventually becomes independent
reduce death due to lifestyle-related diseases
delay time of death; increasing longevity and life expectancy of
We spend more than a trillion dollars that is spen on health and illness. If
we found a way to prevent illness we would reduce those costs.
Two tasks:
- getting people to change problematic behaviours
oweight loss programs
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- prevent people from developing poor health habits in the first
osmoking prevention in teens
Factors that influence health behaviours
1. socioeconomic factors
2. age: childhood, teenagehood, adulthood
3. gender no clear winner
a. eating: f- more healthy eating but more unhealthy dieting
4. Ethnic
a. smoking: aboriginal youth- 3x> Canadian average
b. diabetes: aboriginal peoples
c. abdominal fat: chinese vs. European descent Canadians
i. greater risk of heat disease, hypertension, diabetes.
Health behaviour high in childhood, dips in adolescence, comes back in
adulthood, dips again in old age.
5. Values: ex exercise and women in different cultures
6. Personal control
a. Health locus of control: perception that one’s health is under
personal control, is controlled by powerful others uch as
physicians, or is deteremined by external factors includeing
i. Personal control= better health habbits
7. Social influence: -+ve
8. Personal goals
9. Perceived symptoms smoker who develops a cough attributes the
cough to smoking or illness if they attribute it to smoking they are
more likely to cut down.
10. Access to health care services – Pap smears in Nicaragua
11. Place- rural = less access to services, poorer eating habits,
lower activity at leisure ime, and higher rates of smoking.
12. Cognitive belief that behaviours are beneficial
Health habits are very difficult to change.
- different habits are controlled by different factors.
Factors that control a health behavior can change.
People are more likely to overeat with others than on their own… you
don’t say.
Health habits influenced bye early socialization
Role models – 1st parents, later friends
Health promotion efforts capitalize on educational opportunities to
prevent poor health habits from developing
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