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Lecture 2

PSY336H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Procrastination


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY336H1
Professor
Dan Dolderman
Lecture
2

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PSY336 Lecture 2
- Write down some goals
- Eat healthy, do yoga every two days, make new friends – longevity, appearance, social life
- Drawing, eating, sleeping, walking, shopping, listening to music, reading, blogging
- Procrastination, weight, relationships
- We often don’t get around to completing our goals
oTime doesn’t make a difference in ability to solve goals
oTurning motivation to action is difficult
- Behaviorism to explain motivation?
- Humans are not stimulus response machines – reinforcements and punishments are not
enough
oHumans are meaning-making creatures
oBased on internalized reinforcements – social learning theory
oIf you believe enough, you can be incredibly motivated
oOver-justification effect – creativity and problem solving and kids
Reward kids for playing with markers – different reinforcement
schedules
When rewarded, kids stop playing with markers
Reward diminishes likelihood of behavior
oIf there are behaviors that people already enjoy
- Rewards are bad for intrinsically motivated behavior
oComplex/creativity/difficult/long-term – external reinforcements CAN work,
but doesn’t tend to be sustained
Best reinforced by intrinsic motivators
Self-determinism theory
- Extrinsic motivation vs. Intrinsic motivation
oExtrinsic – motivation that comes from outside
Reward and punishment, authority commands, peer pressure (kind of)
Useful because it’s easily manipulability, operationalize, quantify,
specific, measureable
Gary Latham – carrots and sticks
But over-justification effect
oIntrojected motivation is partial internalization of a extrinsic reinforcement
schedule
Carrots and sticks become internalized
Self-esteem dependence/contingency
Ego attachment
People are concerned about performance evaluation, social comparison
Self-image relies on performance, all about self-evaluation
Counts as extrinsic
Motivation comes from implications that this behavior has for other
consequences (praise, money)
Very vulnerable – consequences change, motivation can decrease
The more extrinsically motivated, the more likely you are to give up
Self-regulation – Energy, willpower, inhibiting distractions, keeping
emotions in check
Self-regulatory resource – goals depend on this too
Dysfunctional behavior – lapses in self-regulation
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