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Lecture 7

PSY336H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Fear Conditioning, Kndb, Inta

Course Code
Dan Dolderman

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PSY336H1F L7 June 05, 2014
“When awareness of experience is fully operating, human bhvr is to be
trusted, for in these moments the human organism becomes aware of
its delicacy & tenderness towards others”
-Carl Rogers
Zwung Su story:
Cook Ting was cutting up an ox for the lord
Sliced in perfect rhythm
Lord asked how he did it
“What I care about is the way that goes beyond skill; after 3 yrs i
no longer saw the whole ox, no I go by the whole spirit; spirit
moves where it wants; follow things as they are; never touch
major joints or small ligaments; a good cook changes his knife
once a year because he cuts, a mediocre chef changes it every yr
because he hack, i’ve had this blade for 19yrs. Whenever I come
to a complicated place, I keep my eyes on what I’m doing & work
slowly til I’m satisfied.”
1st part describes operating at great level of mastery
oFollowing the spirit
oThis mastery involves learning the natural order of things
& moving in them in that natural way
oHarmonization of cook & ox
oDoesn’t force his way thru
oBecomes automatized – can operate unconsciously
oCuts at interstices
2nd part – liked by Cz
oWhen something comes along he hasn’t mastered, he
stops & peers intently into it
oIntense focus of concentration
oAllows analytic abilities to take it apart until he can find
the interstices he couldn’t see before
oNot natural, instead effortful
So far we’ve talked about learning to be attuned to deep inner response
of things
Eudaimonia – learning what we naturally resonate w inside 
aligning ourselves w it
We don’t always know what we love
oEasy once we know
oObstacles are huge at beginning – stage 2 of cook
Analytic, don’t know natural order
Te relatively unexamined person doesn’t rly know who they are
oCan’t easily go into selves intuitively or spontaneously
oWe don’t spend much time w ourselves
Personality theorists:
oJung : path to personal growth thru individuation
Take apart construction of self 
Opening yourself up to larger reality of who we
Integrating the persona in the shadow (attached
to us, constructed dialectically thru your social
world; social acceptable part so acceptable to
We also integrate parts of you that other ppl didn’t
Being parented: highly conditional
ppl grow up w internalized feeling of
conditionality – only the good parts of me
are worthy of love, so I’m not worthy
Shame is universal – internalized sense of
conditional acceptance
A person thoroughly riddled w shame – strong conditionality –
large portion of self is rejected
oOnly partially accepted by others
oOnly partially accepted by ourselves
A person getting to know themselves has to run into parts of
themselves they don’t like
oOtherwise only reinforcing their persona
oYou must struggle w your feelings
Interferes w 4Ms: mindfulness, meaning, morality,
oOne of reaons why we appreciate cognitive &
physiological components of emotion
oWe will all encounter diffcult emotions during self-
All heros have struggles
Book: Why Can’t We Be Good?
At first prof disappointed w it
Milgrim study:
oInterview w Mr. Protsy (gets to end of study) – not an
uncaring person, highly disturbed, nervous ticks, anger
towards expt’er
oMr Wallace (learner in other room) wants to be let out
screaming often, panicked, wants to be let out, heart
bothering him, can’t take the pain
Eventually refuses to continue
Stops responding at 330 volts
oMr Protsy continually turns to expt’er
Increasingly agitated, angry
But continues to shock Wallace
Goes to 400 volts
oEnd: Protsy glad it’s over
Expt’er tells him to continue using max shock
oAfter, Protsy interviewed:
Asked in variety of ways, Why didn’t he stop?
Because he wouldn’t let me, because he said
the expt had to continue
I did stop but he told me I had to continue
Is there anything Mr Wallace could’ve said to make
you stop?
Doesn’t understand the Q
He didn’t say anything about making me
oInterviewers trying to get at the pt that Mr Protsy is the one
that continued
Gets to pt of agitation
Would never take the blame
Always gives responsibility to expt’er
oProtsy sits defeated
Then told Mr Wallace wasn’t shocked
Told it wasn’t real
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“The sun rises in Mr Protsy’s face”
Straightens up, regains confidence
Glad to know, was worried, was getting ready to
walk out (but he wasn’t!!)
As soon as he’s let off the hook, he says he was
about to stop & become a hero
oProtsy comes face to face w his moral failures
No way he could justify what he did
Convinces himself he isn’t a terrible person
oAssume Protsy has learning nothing
oHis shadow slapped him in the face & he refuses to
acknowledge it
Admitting our deep moral failings is hard to do
oWe don’t like it
oProblem: we never get to know who we are
oWe are in a prison of our own ego
oOur whole awareness can’t operate
oLiving in our persona – constructed image of ourselves as
great ppl
Article in 1995: the dark side of self esteem
Bausmeister & Leery
Ppl w high self esteem often more violent & prejudice,
dysfunction, more self-serving biases so more delusional, good at
ignoring (-) truths
Less than a decade before this
oFunctionality of (+) illusions
oPrevailing wisdom: healthy psychological fning is great no
matter what path you take to get there
oHigh self esteem correlated w lots of good things
Problem in literature: High self esteem both good & bad
oExplicit & implicit self esteem
oMore self reports record explicit
oGenuine vs. Self-presentation to others
oMeasuring implicit w IAT can find high self esteem at
explicit level but low self esteem at implicit level
oNarcissists ave deeply internalized low self esteem
Self esteem – illusory projection
Dalai Lama didn’t understand idea of low self-esteem
oNot tibetan word for self-loathing
Loving yourself & loving other ppl – very related
Development of pro-social intentions, morality
oDeterminance of morality (others)
o security (self)
You have to be moral to be awesome
oHappiness to a fair degree limited by degree of morality
Sherman – 3 paths to morality
1. Moral principles
oOld literature
oDominant until 1980s
oReasoning perspective – reasoning process are what
consciousness is about
Much evidence
Research on Holocaust: retrospective interviews w
Interested in differences btwn rescuers & passive
Helping  death
Universal distinction: rescuers talked about how
their parents had emphasized universal
humanity (we all are the same, humanism)
oResisted propaganda
oJews = People
Hitler propaganda for a decade before onset of
WWII against Jewish ppl as “sub-human”
oWell-designed propaganda
oAssociated Jews w disgust seemed
moral to “exterminate” them
oPpl need to be taught ethical knowledge
o1 justification for religion – teaches ppl right from wrong
some believe atheists don’t have morals
Fundamental flaw in Catholicism – doing right just to
get into Heaven out of fear; emphasis on guilt
Distinction of religion btwn indiv & institution
Connection to intrinsic & extrinsic motivation
oRogers: if you follow your heart you’ll get to a good place
oKey principle : Cognitive “We are all one” ability for
perspective-taking perception of in-group is extended
Emotionally resonate
Goes wrong when you have a bigger boundary btwn
in/out grp
lack of perspective-taking
lack of moral inclusion
its okay to harm them
oTorturers taught to detach themselves, think of enemy a
Emphasized moral superior of in-group
oEthical treatment of animals
Compassion for animals come from realization that
they suffer
Medieval ppl thought animals couldn’t feel pain, didn’t
have a soul or consciousness
Darwin, Behaviourism: Animals have emotional lives,
whales have names
Book “When Elephants Weep”
oEmotional connection dependent on beliefs  affects
oPrinciples feed back to emotions
2. Moral emotions
oJonathan Haidt’s Social Intuitionist Model: understanding
of moral reasoning misguided because we studied moral
Moral reasoning doesn’t reliably lead to moral bhvr
Emotional connection more important than moral
Reasoning thru dilemmas guided by emotional
response leads to reason
Constructed scenarios:
If I brought in clean toilet, put water in, would
you drink it?
oUniversal Disgust response (universal
oDisgust not a rational response
oCan come up w reasons, but they follow
from disgust reaction
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