Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSG (50,000)
PSY (4,000)
Lecture

PSY370H1 Lecture Notes - Gestalt Psychology, Combinatorial Explosion, Crossing Lines


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY370H1
Professor
John Vervaeke

This preview shows page 1. to view the full 5 pages of the document.
INTRODUCTION
2 CENTRAL METAPHORS OF THINKING & REASONING
ACTION- choice
PERCEPTION- automatic, follows predictable patterns
Where is thinking?
Where does your cognition end & a cultural tool begin? Ex: writing notes
We are learning A-RATIONAL stuff….????
GESTALT vs. SEARCH-INFERENCE FRAMEWORK
GESTALTISTS: PERCEPTION metaphor
SEARCH-INFERENCE FRAMEWORK: ACTION metaphor
(from computational tradition)
HOBBES
:
“by ratiocination I mean computation”…Turing
NEWELL & SIMON 1957-72
GPS = fundamental framework for AI & thinking.
Success:
formalized
a technical explanation for problem solving which led to further
discoveries.
P.S. FRAMEWORK - space, initial & goal states, operators, path constraints, solution
Solution:
sequence of operations that can transform the initial state goal state while
obeying path constraints
Method: realized search space is combsplosionally vast. heuristic means-ends analysis?
Flawed Assumptions:
featural, categorical view of probsolv
o
transfer-specificity, domain-specificity
framing & formulation is a minor problem
o
well vs. ill-defined problems
GESTALTIST HISTORY
THORNDIKE cats in problem boxes. At no point do they really “get it”
Associationism: idea that simple learning mechanism (Law of Effect) splains intelligence. SO
greater intelligence = better functioning of law of effect?
KOHLER challenged this. Worked w/ Sultan. Said sultan & cat were doing very different things.
Gestaltist.
said Sultan was performing a massive restructuring of salient features an ASPECT
SHIFT. This phenomenon was labeled, but not explained.
INSIGHT: THEORIES & DEBATES
THEORETICAL DEBATES
Insight:
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

a) a perception metaphor for problem formulation
b) ability to RESTRUCTURE ill-defined formulations
c) a qualitative change in learning
HEURISTICS: hill-climbing, trial & error, means-ends analysis
IS PROBFORM ANOTHER TYPE OF HEURISTIC?
Depends on which metaphor you use (WHY???)
IS PROBFORM PROCESS SAME AS PROBSOLV PROCESS? ****
Gestaltists NO: formulation is like perception, solving is like action
POLYA:
coined term “heuristics”
provocative heuristics
”: “tickle the memory”
Newell used these to MAKE the GPS, but did not make the GPS use these heuristics.
HOLYOAK
KAPLAN & SIMON?
DUNCKER
WERTHEIMER
MAYER
WEISBERG & ALBA say insight is fake
gave 9-dot problem w/ VERBAL HINT “go outside the box”
didn’t help to solve problems concluded insight was fake. Forgot to take into account
propositional/procedural distinction & transfer-appropriate processing
said fixation didn’t exist
compartmentalization of memory/search space into exhaustive domains …??? You
switch from one to another??? Memory Organization Thesis
o important idea, memory organization IS crucial, but mechanisms aren’t well-
founded.
CRITICISMS:
ELLEN
Criticisms of compartmentalization:
o combinatorially explosive # of domains
o how to cross-reference between domains?
o How to label compartments
o Notion of what a domain/compartment is is vague
o how do you know when you’ve exhausted a domain
o How/when do you decide to switch domains BEFORE one’s exhausted?
Memory organization thesis: organized to help you solve problem
Magical memory thesis: ?
DOMINOWSKI sufficiency vs necessity of breaking fixation
Breaking one’s fixation may be sufficient but unnecessary to “insight” probsolv.
This may be why Weisberg & Alba got these results.
Insight isn’t algorighmic.
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version