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Lecture

LEC1- Theories of Thinking Sept 10 2009

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY370H1
Professor
John Vervaeke

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PSY370: Thinking and Reasoning
LEC1: Theories of Thinking
Sept, 10th, 2009
! thinking is treated as an action and is not like perception
! perception is something that happens to us
! there is no goal in perception, and there is no conscious control over our perceptual
processes
! we cannot correct our perception as opposed to our action
! thinking also has a lot of properties in common with perception
! a lot of thinking happen unconsciously and automatically
ie. problem solving, inference making
these automatic processes follow predictive patterns
! psychotechnology / cultural tool
! standardized culturally transmitting tool used for transmitting information
! ie. literacy, numeracy
Different Types of Theories about Thinking
! Baron, 1994: 3 kinds of theories
! Descriptive explanatory theory
describe how people normally think
come up with causally based explanations of the phenomenon
1st stage: attempt to determine the phenomenon to be explained
! ie. will power some people think does not exist and is not a actual phenomenon
2nd stage: determine if it can be studied scientifically
3rd stage: whats the appropriate framework for studying the phenomenon
! what type of analysis to use
! ie. brain, neurochemistry, etc.
4th stage: determine the mechanisms that cause/explain the phenomenon
! explanation is dependent on causation
! experimentation is the gold standard
Problem facing trying to explain thinking from this theory
! we are constantly correcting each other's rational behaviour
! rational vs. irrational
you are categorically rational but specifically irrational
in order to be irrational we must be able to be rational
! rational vs. arational
arational = something not possible of achieving rationality (ie. chair)
! how ppl actually think, and their deviation from the normative model
! Normative Theories
! study of psychology always have a set of normative theories in the background against
which subjects are judged
! the normative theories we pick must make sense and be ecologically valid/external validity
(the context of experimentation is relatively similar to real world context)
! normative theory are what people should do
! a standard that defines the best way for a thinker to think to achieve their goals
! the ideal way of thinking
! Prescriptive Theory
prescribe a solution
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Description
PSY370: Thinking and Reasoning LEC1: Theories of Thinking Sept, 10th, 2009 thinking is treated as an action and is not like perception perception is something that happens to us there is no goal in perception, and there is no conscious control over our perceptual processes we cannot correct our perception as opposed to our action thinking also has a lot of properties in common with perception a lot of thinking happen unconsciously and automatically ie. problem solving, inference making these automatic processes follow predictive patterns psychotechnology cultural tool standardized culturally transmitting tool used for transmitting information ie. literacy, numeracy Different Types of Theories about Thinking Baron, 1994: 3 kinds of theories Descriptive explanatory theory describe how people normally think come up with causally based explanations of the phenomenon 1 stage: attempt to determine the phenomenon to be explained ie. will power some people think does not exist and is not a actual phenomenon nd 2 stage: determine if it can be studied scientifically 3 stage: whats the appropriate framework for studying the phenomenon what type of analysis to use thie.
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