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Lecture

LEC2 – The Search Inference Framework Sept 17 2009?

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY370H1
Professor
John Vervaeke

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PSY370: Thinking and Reasoning
LEC2 The Search Inference Framework
Sept, 17th, 2009
Review from last Lecture
! thinking is altered by our psycho/cultural technology
! normative theory is generated by logical rationalization and not empirical evidence
Dominant Framework: Search Inference Framework
! comes out of the computation tradition
! thinking is a form of information processing
! information processing is best understood as computation
! Newell & Simon 1957 are the founding fathers of this tradition
! an opponent of the Gestalt tradition
! problem solving consists of the search through a search space/problem space
! Baron did an influential review of this in 1994
! we search for 3 kinds of things
1. search for possibilities
! possible answers to the questions/problems at hand
2. goals
! we wonder what our goals are unlike animals
! functioning as criteria against which you can evaluate possibilities
! goals need to be formulated in such a way that they can help us distinguish and
choose b/w possibilities
3. evidence
! belief or potential belief that helps you determine how well a possible answer can
actually achieve a goal
! inference is the use of evidence to alter belief
! we can alter belief about our possibilities, goals and previous evidence
! judgement: the evaluation of the interconnections b/w goals and possibilities
! formal way of problem solving such that it can be solved computationally
! a problem is formally represented by 4 kinds of elements
! 1. description of initial state
! 2. description of goal state to be achieved
! 3. set of operators
actions that can be taken which can be taken to change the current state of the problem
! 4. path constraints
impose on addition constraints on the solutions beyond simply reaching the goal
! ie. find a solution in the fewest possible steps
! this is an abstract space
! it consists of all possible states that can be reached by applying the operators
! A solution is a sequence of operators that can transform the initial state to the goal state while
obeying the path constraints
! a problem solving method is a procedure for finding a solution
! F^D
! F = # of operators available to you at any step
! D = # of steps you have to go through
! Chess
F = 30 legal moves
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Description
PSY370: Thinking and Reasoning LEC2 The Search Inference Framework Sept, 17th, 2009 Review from last Lecture thinking is altered by our psychocultural technology normative theory is generated by logical rationalization and not empirical evidence Dominant Framework: Search Inference Framework comes out of the computation tradition thinking is a form of information processing information processing is best understood as computation Newell & Simon 1957 are the founding fathers of this tradition an opponent of the Gestalt tradition problem solving consists of the search through a search spaceproblem space Baron did an influential review of this in 1994 we search for 3 kinds of things 1. search for possibilities possible answers to the questionsproblems at hand 2. goals we wonder what our goals are unlike animals functioning as criteria against which you can evaluate possibilities goals need to be formulated in such a way that they can help us distinguish and choose bw possibilities 3. evidence belief or potential belief that helps you determine how well a possible answer can actually achieve a goal inference is the use of evidence to alter belief we can alter belief about our possibilities, goals and previous evidence judgement: the evaluation of the interconnections bw goals and possibilities formal way of problem solving such that it can be solved computationally a problem is formally represented by 4 kinds of elements 1. description of initial state 2. description of goal state to be achieved 3. set of operators actions that can be taken which can be taken to change the current state of the problem 4. path constraints impose on addition constraints on the solutions beyond simply reaching the goal ie. find a solution in the fewest possible steps this is an abstract space it consists of all possible states that can be reached by applying the operators A solution is a sequence of operators that can transform the initial state to the goal state while obeying the path constraints a problem solving method is a procedure for finding a solution F^D F = # of operators available to you at any step D = # of steps you have to go through Chess F = 30 legal moves www.notesolution.com
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