LEC6 – Metacognition Mindfulness and Flow Oct 22 2009

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16 Aug 2010
School
Department
Course
Professor
PSY370: Thinking and Reasoning
LEC6 Metacognition, Mindfulness, and Flow
Oct, 22nd, 2009
Transfer
! roles of transfer in insight as procedural
! failure of transfer through analogy (Gick & Holyoak)
! plausible theory to ppl b/c the main mechanism for transfer is through analogy (even though
it was wrong)
Gentner: Structure mapping theory
! importance of analogy to insight
! analogies work by mapping a common system of relations b/w the source and the target (ie.
solar system and atom)
! sun vs. atom
SUN
ATOM
sun attracts planets
necleous attracts electrons
planet orbit sun
electrons orbit nucleous
equilibrium b/w attraction and orbits
equilibrium b/w attractions and orbits
! Gentner proposes that this mapping of relations can be formalized
! this require formal distinction b/w attribution and relational properties
ROUND
ball
predicate
argument
! attributes are predicates that take one argument
! LARGER (x) = attribute
! relations are predicates that take two or more
! COLLIDE (x, y)
! distinction b/w first order and higher order predicates
! different b/w relations, and relation between relations
! higher order is the latter, while former is lower order
! lower order take objects as their arguments ie. COLLIDE (truck, car); both truck and car =
objects
! higher order take predicates as their arguments ie. CAUSE [COLLIDE (truck, car), STRIKE
(woman, man)]
! going back to the sun vs. atom example the formal structure is:
! EQ[ ATTRACT (x,y), ORBIT (y, x)]
! Gentner is aware that any 2 subjects can be found infinitely similar or dissimilar to each other
(first proposed by Goodman)
! Goodman
! analogy cannot be done by similarity
! similarity is too unconstraint
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Document Summary

Transfer roles of transfer in insight as procedural failure of transfer through analogy (gick & holyoak) plausible theory to ppl b/c the main mechanism for transfer is through analogy (even though it was wrong) Gentner: structure mapping theory importance of analogy to insight. analogies work by mapping a common system of relations b/w the source and the target (ie. solar system and atom) Atom necleous attracts electrons electrons orbit nucleous equilibrium b/w attraction and orbits equilibrium b/w attractions and orbits. gentner proposes that this mapping of relations can be formalized this require formal distinction b/w attribution and relational properties. attributes are predicates that take one argument. larger (x) = attribute relations are predicates that take two or more. distinction b/w first order and higher order predicates. different b/w relations, and relation between relations.

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