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Lecture 8

LEC8 – Theories of Deduction and Conditional Reasoning Oct 29 2009

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY370H1
Professor
John Vervaeke

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PSY370 Thinking & Reasoning
LEC7 Theories of Deduction and Conditional Reasoning
Oct, 29th, 2009
Weisberg: Homogenous class for Insight Problems
Gilhooly & Moody (2005)
! Determine whether or not restructuring is necessary for solving the problem
! if it was necessary then it was pure insight problem
! if it was not necessary then it was pure non-insight problem
! if it was helpful but necessary then it was a hybrid problem
! G&M varied number of insight problems
! subjects were tested on all insight and non-insight problems
! did positive manifold: how performance on one test correlates to another
! if how I am doing on one problem is predictive of how I am doing on another problem, then
the problems share something similar
! see if there is a positive manifold between insight problems
! if there was none, then this will be strong evidence against the insight problems as a class
! if there is, then there is evidence for insight problems as a class
! researchers also measured ppl's abilities and see which one is predictive of success on insight
problems
! RESULT: strong positive manifold b/w insight problems, non-insight tasks cluster mainly with
non-insight tasks (not strong positive manifold, but moderate)
! this supports the notion that there are clear underlying processes for insight tasks that are
not shared with non-insight problems
! RESULT: measures of cognitive flexibility are particularly important for insight problem
solving and not on non-insight problems
! cognitive flexibility are used for figural fluidity test and alternative use test
! figural fluidity test
produce as many patterns as you can by joining 2 dots when given 5 dots
the more figures you can produce, the more fluid you are
this involes restructuring and
! alternative use test
produce as many uses for 6 common objects that is different than the normal use
this involves overcoming functional fixedness
also involves restructuring etc.
! insight involves working memory, switching of attention, and inhibition of irrelevant
information
! only when correct switch of attention, inhibition then do you get the problem formulation that is
productive of solving the problem
Flak & Weisberg 2004
! exp. result challenges Schooler and Melcher
! concurrent verbalization impair insight problems and not non-insight problems
! perhaps this is b/c there are different ways in using language such that some impair insight
problems while other trigger insight problems
! looked at independent line of research developed by Schooler and other: Verbal overshadowing
! concurrent verbalization do not only impair insight problems but other processes
! relationship b/w language use and cognitive processing are much more subtle
! verbal overshadowing for face recognition, deep analogies etc.
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Description
PSY370 Thinking & Reasoning LEC7 Theories of Deduction and Conditional Reasoning Oct, 29th, 2009 Weisberg: Homogenous class for Insight Problems Gilhooly & Moody (2005) Determine whether or not restructuring is necessary for solving the problem if it was necessary then it was pure insight problem if it was not necessary then it was pure non-insight problem if it was helpful but necessary then it was a hybrid problem G&M varied number of insight problems subjects were tested on all insight and non-insight problems did positive manifold: how performance on one test correlates to another if how I am doing on one problem is predictive of how I am doing on another problem, then the problems share something similar see if there is a positive manifold between insight problems if there was none, then this will be strong evidence against the insight problems as a class if there is, then there is evidence for insight problems as a class researchers also measured ppls abilities and see which one is predictive of success on insight problems RESULT: strong positive manifold bw insight problems, non-insight tasks cluster mainly with non-insight tasks (not strong positive manifold, but moderate) this supports the notion that there are clear underlying processes for insight tasks that are not shared with non-insight problems RESULT: measures of cognitive flexibility are particularly important for insight problem
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