LEC9 – Pragmatic Reasoning Schema and Cheater Detection Nov 5 2009?

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16 Aug 2010
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PSY370: Thinking and Reasoning
LEC9 Pragmatic Reasoning Schema and Cheater Detection
Nov, 5th, 2009
Review: Dual Processing Level
! propositional / sequential / computational
! pattern based / procedural / parallel processing
Kershaw & Ohlssan 2004
! challenge implicit assumption in W&A: there is a single difficulty that once overcome will lead
to insight problem solving
! alternative: multiple reinforcing constraints
! if this is the case you need to have pattern based / PDP
! attacking a problem that is mutually reinforcing sequentially, will lead to the system
reconstructing itself and resisting. Hence we need to use PDP, and use pattern recognition
abilities more.
! Insight may be procedural in nature because they are multiple reinforcing constraints in
them, similar to how we need to solve a procedural problem
! complex skills are what we need when we have insight problems -> procedural in nature
! single difficulty stems from theoretical confusion
! there is often a single key action to solve the insight problem
! key: salient and necessary to solving the problem
! ie. 9 box: key = go outside the box
! the fact that there is a single key action to solve the insight problem does not mean there is a
single difficulty
! there may be multiple mutual difficulty
! similar to confusion of necessity and sufficiency
! 3 kinds of factors
1. perceptual factors (pattern factors)
figural integrity
Gestalt laws
relevant and salience patterns
cognition and perception is oriented to patterning information
! Processing Factors (formulation factors)
Search space factors
mental look ahead
! Knowledge factors (Transfer factors)
poor or inappropriate transferring
! all 3 factors are all mutually reinforcing
! ex. 9 dot problem
have to pattern the figure (break the figure of the square, alter background and
foreground relationship)
have to formulate what to do outside the 9 dots, search space is very large in the “going
outside the 9 dots” hint
transfer issues -> break with past experiences where connecting dots leads closed figure
! key is to attack all 3 factors together in a coordinated manner, the harder problems are the
problems in which more constraints are imposed mutually from the 3 factors
! K&O
! ran experiment involved in procedurally training difficulty on all 3 factors
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