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Lecture

Lecture 1.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY371H1
Professor
Christine Burton

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Lecture 1 – Welcome to PSY371: Higher Cognitive Processes
01/24/2014
Today's Plan
Review course outline and objectives
Introduce history of the study of intelligence
Describe the structure of modern intelligence tests
Validity
Reliability
Discuss the type of information that can be extracted from intelligence tests
Major Issues In This Class
What is intelligence?
Intelligence is in a way the ultimate ability in the sense that you sort of put everything together in order to be intelligent or have
some level of intelligence
What is intelligence good for?
Is intelligence strictly a human ability?
What determines the contents of our conscious thought?
How stable are our cognitive abilities?
Two Historical Approaches To Intelligence
These 2 individuals have influenced the way we study and talk about intelligence:
Francis Galton was concerned with differences between individual’s intelligence, measuring intelligence and comparing
people
This tradition has carried on with intelligence tests, norming, etc
Large influence on testing and hereditary view of intelligence
Alfred Binet was concerned with identifying group milestones
He was not interested in comparing people but just wanted to see what cognitive abilities do people have and what bare
minimum are they able to achieve
Influenced information processing view of intelligence and cognitive development
Galton (1822 - 1911)
Galton was privileged, intelligent and successful
He started off training to be a doctor but because we was well-off, he could afford to travel the world for a while before finishing
his medical degree. instead, he went to Cambridge to study mathematics
Major life interests included measurement and ranking of ability --> he posted a ranking of everyone at the university and
he was obsessed with being number one although, he never was)
He had a meltdown in university and when he came back he had to settle with not getting an honours degree. From them on, his
attitude change about the British educational system
He traveled to Africa and id a lot of measurements involving demographics
He was the person who suggested using finger prints
Highly influenced by cousin Darwin’s Origin of Species
Thanks to Darwin's work, he turned his attention towards measuring individuals
He thought that if the evolution theory was true, then we should be able to measure individual differences
His Anthropometric Laboratory measured keenness of sensation (e.g. people's reaction time measured by how fast could they
push a button) and individual differences in intelligence
He sort of became frustrated with society as he realized that some people couldn't use his instruments
He thought that everyone was stupid
Now we know that his measurements were completely unrelated to intelligence but he was the first person to think that we could
measure intelligence and compare people
In order to compare people:
He developed correlation but he didn't have enough mathematical background to come up with a formula
Invented regression to describe the relationship between items that tended to be related
He also discovered that human characteristics fall into a normal distribution
In Hereditary Genius he proposed that eminence was passed down from generation to generation --> proposed that
intelligence is inherited
His reason was that the son of someone with a certain profession is more likely to also have that same profession (e.g. doctors,
lawyers)
Introduced “nature vs. nurture” debate
He also invented twin studies of intelligence (looked at MZ and DZ twins to look at inheritance)
Suggested the use of eugenics: the idea that less worthy people should be sterilized so that feeble-minded people will not be
born
He did not support sterilization specifically but supported preferential breeding  he thought that in the ideal world, you would
measure people's intelligence and pair the up the smarted man & woman and so on until you get to a cut off. People who are
below the cut off should not have children
He wanted to improve human rase all the time and thought that in order to do so, only clever people should reproduce
Influence can be traced to prominent past and present intelligence researchers (DON'T NEED TO KNOW NAMES)
J. Cattell
Spearman
Pearson
Wechsler
Burt
Vernon
R. Cattell
Eysenck

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Description
Lecture 1 – Welcome to PSY371: Higher Cognitive Processes                      01/24/2014 Today's Plan Review course outline and objectives Introduce history of the study of intelligence Describe the structure of modern intelligence tests Validity  Reliability Discuss the type of information that can be extracted from intelligence tests Major Issues In This Class What is intelligence? Intelligence is in a way the ultimate ability in the sense that you sort of put everything together in order to be intelligent or have  some level of intelligence  What is intelligence good for?  Is intelligence strictly a human ability? What determines the contents of our conscious thought? How stable are our cognitive abilities? Two Historical Approaches To Intelligence These 2 individuals have influenced the way we study and talk about intelligence: Francis Galton was concerned with differences between individual’s intelligence, measuring intelligence and comparing  people This tradition has carried on with intelligence tests, norming, etc Large influence on testing and hereditary view of intelligence Alfred Binet was concerned with identifying group milestones He was not interested in comparing people but just wanted to see what cognitive abilities do people have and what bare  minimum are they able to achieve Influenced information processing view of intelligence and cognitive development Galton (1822 ­ 1911) Galton was privileged, intelligent and successful He started off training to be a doctor but because we was well­off, he could afford to travel the world for a while before finishing  his medical degree. instead, he went to Cambridge to study mathematics Major life interests includemeasurement  and ranking of ability  ­­> he posted a ranking of everyone at the university and  he was obsessed with being number one although, he never was) He had a meltdown in university and when he came back he had to settle with not getting an honours degree. From them on, his  attitude change about the British educational system He traveled to Africa and id a lot of measurements involving demographics  He was the person who suggested using finger prints Highly influenced by cousin Darwin’s Origin of Species Thanks to Darwin's work, he turned his attention towards measuring individuals He thought that if the evolution theory was true, then we should be able to measure individual differences His Anthropometric Laboratory measured keenness of sensation (e.g. people's reaction time measured by how fast could they  push a button) and individual differences in intelligence He sort of became frustrated with society as he realized that some people couldn't use his instruments He thought that everyone was stupid Now we know that his measurements were completely unrelated to intelligence but he was the first person to think that we could  measure intelligence and compare people In order to compare people: He developed correlation but he didn't have enough mathematical background to come up with a formula Invented regression to describe the relationship between items that tended to be related He also discovered that human characteristics fall into a normal distribution In   he proposed that eminence was passed down from generation to generation ­­> proposed that  Hereditary Genius intelligence is inherited His reason was that the son of someone with a certain profession is more likely to also have that same profession (e.g. doctors,  lawyers) Introduced “nature vs. nurture” debate He also invented twin studies of intelligence (looked at MZ and DZ twins to look at inheritance) Suggested the use of eugenics: the idea that less worthy people should be sterilized so that feeble­minded people will not be  born He did not support sterilization specifically but supported preferential breeding ▯ he thought that in the ideal world, you would  measure people's intelligence and pair the up the smarted man & woman and so on until you get to a cut off. People who are  below the cut off should not have children He wanted to improve human rase all the time and thought that in order to do so, only clever people should reproduce Influence can be traced to prominent past and present intelligence researchers (DON'T NEED TO KNOW NAMES) J. Cattell Spearman Pearson Wechsler  Burt  Vernon  R. Cattell  Eysenck  Jenson Binet (1857 ­ 1911) Wealthy and smart Trained as a lawyer, Binet was interested in science and human development He was given a lab at a university but was never able to get the tittle of professor for not having a graduate degree He was approached by the government to help them decide which students needs to go a regular school and which others  needed extra help With his graduate student, Theodore Simon,  developed a     cognitive abilities tes t (what things should children be able to do when  they enter school?) for French schoolchildren Children would take the test and receive a score of a mental age He was concerned that people would misuse his tests Nowadays, the Stanford­Binet Test is given to individuals who are then given an IQ score that is normalized. This number is  supposed to be stable through your life He did NOT believe that we should be measuring and comparing individuals Believed intelligence develops with age (it changed and was NOT stable), is highly malleable by experience, and is not unitary  (intelligence is not a single things, there are many components) Introduced idea of standardizing mental tests on average groups of people Major influence on both intelligence testing and cognitive development/information processing Goddard ­­> translated Binet's Test and introduced it in America Terman  Simon  Piaget Sternberg Gardner There are now 2 groups of intelligence theory. One is based more on testing and the other one is based on cognitive processing: (1) Testing­based Intelligence Theories 1. Using factor analysis, Spearman argued for the single intelligence construct, “g” o Is the idea that all intelligence tests measure this one thing 2. R. Cattell & Horn's Fluid & Crystalized Intelligence o Is the idea that there are 2 components to intelligence: I. Fluid g(f) ­­> is your problem solving (e.g. can you rearrange blocks to make a pattern) Are things you  haven't seen before and you sort of figure out as you go II. Crystalized g(c) ­­> is your knowledge­based (e.g. your vocabulary, your knowledge of arithmetic, facts  about the world) Are things you know from before • *Both theories are based on intelligences tests • Thurstone’s Theory of Primary Mental Abilities proposed 7 intelligence components (2) Information Processing­based Intelligence Theories 1. Some believe processing speed serves as a good index of intelligence (e.g. Eysenck, Jenson, Vernon) o Is the idea that the faster your brain works, the smarter you are o These scientists really think that intelligence is inherited. There are individual differences between people and certain  groups of people are naturally smarter than others because they have inherited faster brains 2. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory assumes intelligence is a result of the interaction of mental components within ourselves  and the external world o He says that there are 3 components of intelligence: 1. Standard intelligence (a.k.a "book­smart") 2. Street smart (they are able to think on the spot and problem solve) 3. Creeativity o For him, intelligenchow you use these things!  / how you implement them everyday Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory proposes 8 independent types of intelligence 4. Current Questions About Intelligence • Which abilities require intelligence? • What causes intelligence?  ­­> is it something inherited? learned? can it change? is it one thing or many things? • Are there group differences in intelligence? ­­> re certain groups of people smarter than others (on average)? • How stable is intelligence? ­­> this is an important question because if it is NOT stable then it is not worth measuring.  is there nay point on having IQ tests? • How should intelligence be measured? ­­>  are standard tests what we should be using? what about other  candidates? Early Intelligence Tests • Earliest intelligence tests were not predictive (i.e. Galton's tests such as how strongly you can blow into a straw?) • Binet's test was closer to modern intelligence tests because he actually measured cognitive ability and those tests  were predictive of school ability • Lewis Terman brought the test to America and he normed it on the American population (i.e. he said this is what the  average American can do) and he came up with the IQ score (it is your mental age divided by your chronological age,  times 100) o He renamed the test: Stanford­Binet Test o This test is the one currently used today. However, it has been updated 5 times o This is an individual test and it was also given to children. This doesn't works well for adults because there is  no reason to believe that a 19 year­old is going to be smarter than an 18 year­old. once you get to adults, age  is meaningless for intelligence. • Army Alpha and Beta Tests were closer to modern intelligence tests, as well o Army Alpha Tests were used on adults because they use a different criteria. o instead of comparing your score to an age, they compare it to school grade o It was also a group tests and the first multiple choice test o It was done so that the army could know were they needed to place their recruits (e.g. some people weren't  intelligent enough to be in an office) Structure of Intelligence Tests • Modern IQ tests are ca"batteries" ­> they have a whole group of different sub­tests • An IQ battery is made up of scales and each scale is made up of subtests • Example of Stanford­Binet battery:  o Scales are on the left column o Each one has subtests o All subtests sum up to give you a score of the scale and all scales sum up to give you a score on the battery o The overall score is your IQ score that sometimes dived into: non­verbal score and verbal score • The SB Test is not the most commonly used nowadays. The Wechsler Test is. • ***IQ tests and intelligence are terms used interchangeably. however, this is not correct because nobody believes that IQ  scores are exactly your intelligence. IQ scores are believed to be a close enough measure of intelligence, that is why they  are called intelligence tests • A good test should h ve reliabi    validity  Reliability •  he test measures the same thing every time y u use it • ***If you don't have reliability, you can't have validity. But, you can have a r
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