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Lecture 6

PSY424H1 Lecture 6: lecture6

Course Code
Geoffrey Mac Donald

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Lecture 6 October 24th [Culture and Values]
A relatively organized system of shared meaning
What Values Differentiate Cultures?
Hofstede’s (1980) study of IBM service and marketing employees
o All doing basically the same job at about same income level (try to hold
everything equivalent)
o Gave a value survey and tried to analyze it down to the different value
dimensions differentiating them
o Are they influenced by it
o Largely confirmed by Chinese Culture Connection (1987)
Wanted to see if they can replicate the same value dimensions by
Hofstede from value questionnaires developed in china
Value dimensions:
o Masculinity/femininity
Masculine: achievement oriented
Feminine: relationships/quality of life
Emphasis on work-life balance
Most masculine: Japan
o Work long hours, devoted to company; investment and
commitment; built into infrastructure (hotels for businessman
to stay because the subway is closed); strongly invested in work
Most feminine: Sweden
o Life part of work-life balance, generous paternal and maternal
leave, emphasis on social wellness
o Power distance
Degree of respect and deference between superiors and subordinates
Low power distance e.g. call Geoff in first class; high power distance e.g.
call Prof MacDonald
Most power distance: Malaysia
People tend not to ask questions, respect the elders, bow to teachers
in hallways; most Asian countries tend to have larger power
distance; treat superiors with deference
Least power distance: Austria
o Individualism/collectivism
Individualism: defining yourself by what makes you separate from others
o Identity based on personal choices and achievements
o Value personal abilities, thoughts and feelings
o Being unique, expressing self

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E.g. being Youtube vlogger, create value for yourself by expressing these
o Promoting own goals
o Being direct in communication
o More westernized
o Ashlee simpson released an album called “I am me” -> I am defined by just
who I am; needed to position herself to be different from her sister Jessica
Collectivism: defining yourself by what connects you to your ingroup (your
ties to groups which you belong)
o Identity based on the groups to which one is attached
o Belonging and fitting in is important
Value more of being the same as everyone else
o Promoting others’ goals
o Being indirect
Imply meaning but person has to do some work to understand the
o More fluid, flexible, and context-dependent self that is bound to others
I am kind at school, I am respectful to my parents
Change yourself from situation to situation based on context of situation
because belonging and fitting in is important
o Status as ingroup or outgroup matters a lot
o Implicit sense of being connected
Most individualist: US
o Have to take note of data in experiments because we are taking data from
the most individualist country in the world (most data are from US) and
trying to make universal conclusions about everyone in the world (should
not generalize it)
Most collectivist: Guatemala
o Until you are part of the ingroup, you are not treated particularly well
Love and Marriage Across Cultures
Love is universal
What is expected from marriage is more culture specific
o Individualistic:
Gratifying own needs, doing what’s best for you
Two individuals forming a new family
Only implications of your decisions is you and your partner; make
decisions based on you and your partner’s needs
o Collectivist:
Joining of 2 families
Making more of a joint decision since implications apply to your family
Families get more say of who you are going to marry
Love may be subordinate to family obligations
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