Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSG (50,000)
PSY (4,000)
Lecture

PSY426H1 Lecture Notes - Network For Earthquake Engineering Simulation, John Bowlby, Life Satisfaction


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY426H1
Professor
Jason Plaks

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Higgins
REGULATORY FOCUS AS A MOTIVATIONAL PRINCIPAL
we avoid pain and approach pleasure – hedonistic principal (thorndike 1911)
- oftend discussed as if it is unitary (single, uniform)
observation indicated
- that when a behavior in a certain situation produced pleasure, that behavior was likely to
be repeated in that situation
- when a behavior in a situation produced pain, that behavior is less likely to be repeated
in that situation
- this prinicpal provide description of events rather than understanding of underlying
processes
later – skinner (1938) proposes the 'pleasure prinicipal' – states that the
occurrence of operant behaviors increases when they are followed by a reinforcers
- also describes a pattern of observed events
focus of higgins articles – self-regulation towards desired end states
- most important characteristic of this self-regulation is approach motivation
--- the attempt to reduce discrepencies between current states and desired end-states (is
this what approach motivation means )
Higgins critism of previous models -
- although animal learning-biological models, cybernetic-control models and dynamic
models all distinguish approaching desired end states from avoiding undersired end-
states, they do not distinguish between different ways of approaching desired end-states
- these models also do not identify different types of desired end-states that relate to
different means of approach
Questions -
1. Higgins criticizes many previous models (animal learning-biological models,
cybernetic-control models and dynamic models) for not distinguishing between
different ways of approaching desired end-states and for not identifying different
types of desired end-states. Do you agree w/ these criticisms and do you think that
Higgins theory properly addresses these points in his own theory?
2. In his theory, Higgins suggests that individuals can increase the likelihood that
they will attain a desired end-state (ie reduce discrepancies ) by either
approaching matches or avoid mismatches to that end-state. How does this
compare to cognitive dissonance theory?
3. Higgins earlier self-discrepancy theory describes how certain forms of child-
caretaker interactions increase likelihood that child will develop strong desired
end-states. How does this compare to Skinner's theory of operant conditioning?
4. highlights the difference between promotion-focus and prevention-focus. How
does this compare to
Gary's model – suggests approaching 'rewards' and approaching 'non-punishment'
as the being the same
- in contracts – the regulatory focus –

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

The theory of self-regulatory focus
suggests that there are different ways of approaching different types of desired
end-states
assumes that the hedonistic principal should operate differently when serving
fundamenally different needs (i.e survival needs vs secuirity needs
- ie when children are learning how to behave when approaching pleasure/avoiding pain ,
what they learn about regulating pleasure and pain for their security needs may be
different from what they learn when regulating pleasure and pain for their survival nees
- this theory proposes that that regulatory focus for nurturance-related regulation and
security-related regulation are different
--- nurturance involves promotion focus, security involves prevention focus
higgins earlier self-discrepnicy theory describes how certian forms of child-
caretaker interactions increas likihood that child will develope strong desired end-
states
- desired end-states represent either
1. strong ideals -the child's own or a caretaker' wishes, aspiration, hopes for them (strong
ideals
2. strong oughts – a child's or caretakers, beliefs about their duties, obligations, and
responsibilites
this theory proposes that strong ideals vs. Strong oughts differ in regulatory focus
- ideal sefl-regulation – involves a promotion focus
- ought self-regulation – involves a prevention focus
promotion focus caretaker-child interaction -
1. child experiencing pleasure of the presence of a positive outcome (pleasure from being
rewarded for behaving in a desired way) – ie a hug after behaving in a desired manner
2. a child experiencing pain of the abscence of a positive outcome – i.e ending a meal
when a child throws away food
- pleasure and pain from these two interactions are experienced at the presence or absence
of positive outcomes
--- what is communicated to the child is – attaining accomplishments or fulfilling hopes
and aspiration and it is communicated in reference to a state of the child that does or does
not attain the desired end-state
--- the regulatory focus of promotion – a concern with advancement, growth and
accomplishment
prevention focused caretaker-child interaction
1. child experienceing the pleasure of the absence of a negative outcome ie. Training a
child to be alert to dangers or teaching a child to 'mind their manners',
2. child experiencing pain in the presence of a negative outcome the caretaker behaves
harshly with a child to get their attention – yelling, punishing
--- pleausre and pain are experienced in the absence or presence of these negative
outcomes
- the caretaker's message to the child is safety, and being responsible and meeting
obligations and it is communicated in reference to a state of a child that does or does not
attain the desired end-states – what the caretaker believes the child ought to or ought not
to do
- prevention focus – a concern with protection, safety and responsibility
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version