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Lecture 4

PSY494H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Ifalik, Grammatical Tense, Appraisal Theory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY494H1
Professor
Gordon Anderson
Lecture
4

Page:
of 5
psy494- lecture 4
preferences need no inferences:
-biologically distinct things in the brain...separate emotional brain
- emotions are pre cognitive...
- cognitveist think that emotions are cognitive...
- there is a thinking processor that is faster and parallel than the cognitive
processor
- the first data that you extract from the world
Affective primacy:
- mere exposure: repetition results in greater liking
- given two polygons,
- what ends up making you like it is the one that you have seen more
- nothing about the objects itself, but the exposure
- preferences don't need inferences
- don't know why you like something but just like it
Affective priming:
- in non chinese speakers, showed masking stimulus
- you see the characters of chinese words, and another stimulus is shown after
- the second stimulus masks the first
- then make judgement of character
- the affect of prime makes you like it more: smile make you more likely to like
it
- an angry face will make you like it less
- what makes you like it is unconscious
- arguement made a control study:
- having access to seeing the smiley or angry face makes you not like it
and like it more
- something about the unconscious
Developmental independence of preference and recognition:
- in adults and children: they show the same level of preference for objects
- remembered the old and new in adults
- memory changed as development occured, but there was no change in
preference
Neural Evidence for affective primacy:
- fear: expression might be processed even when you aren't attending to them
- when you ignored faces, this decreases FFA
- then the attention is drawn away from the faces and you can see what
the amygdala does.
- the amygdala still attending to fear...even though you are turning off
the FFA
- that means that they not the same thing or attending to the same
thing....you dont have to see the face in order for the amygdala to judge
whether it should be fearful or not~
Affective Primacy:
- you don't need conscious access to what caused your emotions...you don't
know what the stimulus was
- Lazarus: appraisals are unconscious
- what 's an appraisal then? that's what makes it hard to disregard the
cognitive appraisal theory
- those who are brain based: think of the jamesian theory
Social Constructivism:
- most related to the cognitive appraisal perspective
- appraisals are determined by cultures
Darwin and Social Constructivism:
- the biologist and culture/social context: not opposing in context
- can be both~ facial expression are both,,, just see how they interact
- culture and society today are probably more important and influencial to what
emotions are
- culture has important and fast influences unlike biology which takes some
time to make an influence
- culture makes changes in how you view the world
Social Constructivism:
- perception is reality
- comes through interactions with community
- it is social
- view things through social lense
- so what reality is can be different, it is culture specific
- what knowledge is: socially and culturally constructed
- learning changes the way people interact with eachother
- to understand humans require a different perspective
Emergent properties:
- humans are the object, but we cannot be defined without the context of other
people
- no figure without ground
Are any colonies sentient?
- hive intelligence: not individually the ants themselves
- thinking of the society as an organism
Language is Thought:
- the capacity to think is gated with our capacity of language
- if you have no language then you cannot think
- language is central to the means of which allows us to think
- the language that you speak controls what you think
- if you have no words to express then you won't be able to think them
- but language might be the limiting factor:
- we understand our world through the native language we are brought up in,
this is our lense...if language doesn't have certain terms then we won't have
the capacity to think~
-^ this is a principle
Lingusitic determinism:
- Big Brother: replaced oldspeak with newspeak
- remove words that evoked certain ideas " revolution" " victory"
- can control thought by controlling the language that people is exposed to
- Evidence: look for tribes that have languages that have limited words and
numbers
- is it the language that is limiting or the culture itself? This is all the
need?
Dani : color words of warm and cold
- but they can distinguish many more colors: 40 colors
-
Hopi: no grammatical tense for future~ can limit thinking about time, but
probably doesn't mean that they are stuck in time
Culture, language and the brain:
- words don't sound the way the are
Italian: mapping from letter to meaning more consisten and direct
- italians think and read faster
- temporali: activated more robustly (wernicke's area)
- this than those english people speaking in english
Social Constructivism of emotions:
- emotions are not remnants of our evolutionary pasts
- constructed in the present through culture
- can't be explained in pure physiologic terms
- maybe partially but not fully
Emotions are an act of social communications:
- treat tail wagging as a sign of happiness in dogs
- if tail wagging is a "smile",
- when given a treat by a person vs. given a treat without a human
- they don't wag their tail without the person being there
- the emotion is then an expression to share their mental states
- Fridlund: all facial expression are mostly elicited in social contexts
- what society does is somewhat limit
- when you express emotions is when you express a social role
- it serves a social purposes
Behavioural Ecology view:
- Kraut and Johnson: bowlers don't smile when they get a strike but only when
they turn around... not smiling at the pins
- infants don't smile at toys they smile at the caregivers
Averill's social constructivist theory of emotions:
- thinks of emotions as syndromes