PSY341H1 Lecture Notes - Tabula Rasa, Intellectual Disability, Psychopathology

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Published on 16 Sep 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY341H1
Professor
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of 5
PSY341
Lecture 1
Mental retardation – it is a controversial stigma causing term observable in children
*ICD10 – International Classification of Diseases, used by the rest of the world instead
of DSM which is used in North America
A. History of Child Psych
Childhood pathology / psychology is relatively new field – around 50/60
years or so
Father of Psychology FREUD - but he didn’t identify himself as
psychologist but as psychiatrist
oAlso not much interested in children was interested in how childhood
shaped adult behaviours 1900s – it was about experience of
childhood and not behaviour
Profession of psychology emerged during 1940 people started to study
brain & behaviour psychiatrist & Philosopher
1930s- 1940 - WAR needed to study brain & behaviour to find suitable
position for people in war effort
oPsychology then started w/ testing it evolved from testing people for
occupation al position in war to testing in children for IQ to now
Early 1940s: explosion of need for psychologists during and aftermath of WWII
– used psychologists to assess what people could do, useful for recruitment
(psychological and behavioural abilities)
oThe 60s brought about relatively recent development of child psych
The further back in history, the lower the child care children were not
regard as completely separate from adult - this concept was novelized by
famous author , Charles Dickenson – he tells about the plight of children in
England ( Labour, prison etc.)
Up until 1700 - slavery, infanticide, beatings (abuse) are commonplace-
wasn’t seen as immoral up until 18th century, not so much seen as repugnant
Pre-18th century, children are seen as little adults after brief period of
nursing and weaned: mortality rate was pretty high so this created aloofness
because they saw no point of nurturing and getting attached to them
Can see this in paintings of children they look alike miniature
adults w/ adult clothes and poses
Medieval World – children considered as adults once they no longer need
constant adult care so they marry around 12 year old, go to job around 6 or
7 year old
Then came the Enlightenment/ Renaissance Period see the
development of games specific to children during 16-17th century; attitudes
towards children starteing to change idea to give an innocent environment
to raising children
Plague occurred “ring around Rosie
2 institutions were interested in bringing up children so they would be
useful
oChurch - good Christians
oMilitary (the state) – need soldiers for war
Idea for children education were guided by philosophers Children were seen
as blank slates to be moulded to whatever church or state needed ideas of
tabula rasa by John Locke
Only in last century ( 20th) has child law have enforced child right
rights as children
In early 1900s ( can called it Dickinsonian Time) see creation of
institutes to care and nurture and protection for children
o called orphanages – but they were hard and punitive documented by
Dickens
1912 – USA establishment of children’s bureau by congress to investigate and
report matters pertaining to child welfare
1948 – courts in Canada decided rights for adults should be applied to children
(have since been amended, not all rights apply now)
1960s - enable laws to protect disabled and retarded children ( by both
congress and parliament)
1979 – Important Year the UN declared year of child where the countries
involved in UN passed a resolution for children to have care in facilities and at
home, have a family that care for basic needs and have school/institutions
close to child’s social setting
B. The development of Childhood Psychopathology as A Field7
it began around 20th century
abnormal behaviour in children historically been tied to abnormal behaviour in
adult which is not appropriate
ochildren are not typically seen by professionals until their behaviours
become someone else problems
DSM (1st ed) only had 2 childhood psychopathologies, now have 10 categories
History: possession by evil spirits was thought to be causing idea of
psychopathology rather than organic origin (not necessarily knew the brain
back then)
oDuring Enlightenment Period 18th century Hippocrates ideas
(from Ancient Greeks) gained interest again where illness/disorders
were explained using organic explanations source of pathology not
spiritual rather its physiological
Kraepelin *German scientist* - precursor of DSM: he came up with classification
systems (father of classification) he grouped disorders in frequency of
symptomology (which disorders occurred at the same time)
Only in last 100 years has this reference been done to childhood, with one
notable exception: mental retardation – which was pervasive and obvious
oHistorically – mental retardation was treated w/ disdain until last
century where these children were main streamed to bring and
integrate them into society
mid 1800s and 19th century - discovery of learning mechanism called
conditioning (instrumental and operant conditioning)
o people were optimistic in treating mental retardation because it was
previously thought incurable
o but simple principle of learning is simple & conditioning is done by
these individuals well because Conditioning: doesn’t require conscious
attention – which is missing from a lot of mentally retarded….couldn’t
cure it, can only slightly modify
oThe real problem w/ mental retardation is learning new things
( adaptation)
Pessimism in treating mentally retarded when conditioning found not to work
so they become institutionalized
oMendel discovered Genetics mental retardation had biological
causes new institution for the mental retardation
Deinstitutionalizing them only occur in 1960s / 1970s – advocated by parent
groups
C. Conceptualizations and influences of child psych in the 20th century
Classification system only 2 categories of childhood disorders existed at that
time
1940 testing for intellectual ability of children ( not aptitude which is what
your good at) were developed by Binet ( French) which was later adopt to
English by Stanford university called Standford-Binet IQ test for children
oBinet developed NORMS using large number of data points from same
age cohort which were collected IQ quotient: mental age/ actual age
-> determine how close or away from your actual age
Number of diff paradigms in psychology: paradigms are a way of thinking
Much ambiguity, but 2 main paradigms:
oPsychoanalysis (ID, SUPEREGO) : difficult to measure/observe
subconscious behaviour looked at internal factors

Document Summary

Mental retardation it is a controversial stigma causing term observable in children. Early 1940s: explosion of need for psychologists during and aftermath of wwii. Used psychologists to assess what people could do, useful for recruitment (psychological and behavioural abilities: the 60s brought about relatively recent development of child psych. England ( labour, prison etc. ) wasn"t seen as immoral up until 18th century, not so much seen as repugnant. Pre-18th century, children are seen as little adults after brief period of nursing and weaned: mortality rate was pretty high so this created aloofness because they saw no point of nurturing and getting attached to them. Medieval world children considered as adults once they no longer need constant adult care so they marry around 12 year old, go to job around 6 or. 7 year old development of games specific to children during 16-17th century; attitudes towards children starteing to change idea to give an innocent environment to raising children.