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PSY100 Psychological Science (3rd Ed.) Textbook Notes Chapter 15

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Alison Luby

CHAPTER 15 TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS -psychologists use psychological and biological techniques: -Psychotherapy: generic name given to formal psychological treatment -Biological Therapies: medical approaches to illness and to disease Psychopharmacology: use of medications that affect brain/body functions Psychotherapy -aimed at changing patterns of thought/ behavior Psychodynamic Therapy -Freud believed disorders were caused by prior experiences and early traumatic experiences; pioneered the method of psychoanalysis: treatment involved uncovering unconscious feelings and drives that were thought to lead to maladaptive thoughts/behaviors general goal is for patient to gain insight: awareness of unconscious processes and how they affect daily functioning -now, psychodynamic therapy involves examining patients needs, defences and motives -use of this therapy is controversial: evidence for effectiveness in most mental disorders is weak Humanistic Therapies -goal is to treat the person as a whole, not collection of behaviors or repository of repressed thoughts -Client-Centered Therapy (Rogers): an empathic approach to therapy; encourages personal growth through self- understanding therapists are empathic, taking clients perspective and accept client w/ unconditional positive regard uses reflective listening: therapist repeats clients concerns to help person clarify feelings motivational interviewing: CCT use for short period of time; effective for drug/alcohol abuse Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy -most successful therapies involve trying to change ppls behaviors and cognition directly -in behavioral therapy, behavior modification involves rewarding desirable behaviors and punishing undesirable ones social-skills training for interpersonal difficulties; begins w/ modelling (therapist acts out appropriate behavior) -Cognitive Therapy: based on the theory that distorted thoughts can produce maladaptive behavior and emotions; treating the thought patterns should eliminate the maladaptive behaviors Cognitive Restructuring (Beck): clinicians help client recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them w/ more realistic, positive ones Rational-Emotive Therapy (Ellis): therapists act like teachers who explain and demonstrate more adaptive ways of thinking -Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT): incorporates behavioral and cognitive techniques; tries to correct faulty cognitions and train client to engage in new behaviors E.g. person w/ social phobia is taught social skills and also made to see that his appraisals of other ppls reactions to him might be inaccurate One of the most effective forms of psychotherapy for many mental disorders, esp. anxiety and mood disorders Include Exposure: behavioral therapy technique that involves repeated exposure to anxiety-producing stimulus; reliable technique for many phobias and can be tried at home for mild cases Group Therapy -benefits for group therapy includes cost and opportunity to learn from one anothers experiences; believed that 8 is ideal -structured groups (behavioral and cognitive-behavioral groups) effective for bulimia and OCD -less structured groups focus on increasing insight and providing social support Family Therapy -Systems Approach: says that an individual is part of a larger context, and change in individual behavior will affect whole system -type of family involvement important to therapy outcome: Negative expressed emotion (emotional over-involvement, critical comments, hostility by family) correspond to the relapse rate for patients w/ schizophreniaConfession is Good For the Spirit -Aristotle coined the term Catharsis to describe the way certain msgs evoke powerful emotional reactions and subsequent relief -talking about or writing about emotionally charged events reduces blood pressure, muscle tension during disclosure and immediately afterwards; just the act of telling someone about problems can have healing power Effects of Culture -psychotherapy and definitions of mental health are based on the dominant cultural paradigm Medication -Psychotropic Medications: drugs that affect mental processes; act by changing brain neurochemistry (e.g. by inhibiting action potentials or altering synaptic transmission) -fall into three categories: Anti-Anxiety Drugs (Tranquilizers): used for short-term treatment of anxiety; e.g. Benzodiazepines increase activity of GABA (reduce anxiety and promote relaxation, but induce drowsiness and addictive) Antidepressants: used to treat depression; includes monoamine oxidase inhibitors (monoamine oxidase converts serotonin into another form), also may raise levels of dopamine and norepinephrine; tricyclic antidepressants inhibit reuptake of certain neurotransmitters; like SSRI (Prozac), also used for anxiety disorders Antipsychotics (Neuroleptics): used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders involving psychosis; reduce symptoms like hallucinations and delusions; bind to dopamine receptors and block effects of dopamine; have siginificant side effects like tardive dyskinesia (twitching of muscles); not useful for treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia (like apathy, social withdrawal) -other drugs include Lithium (most effective treatment for bipolar disorder); Anti-Convulsants prevent seizures and can also regulate moods in bipolar disorder Alternative Biological Treatments Used in Extreme Cases -in prehistoric times, holes were made in skulls (trepanning) to let out evil spirits believed to cause unusual behavior -in early 20 century, patients w/ severe mental illness underwent psychosurgery, in which areas of front corte
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