Class Notes (837,538)
Canada (510,303)
Psychology (3,528)
PSY100H1 (1,637)
Michelle (2)

PSYC14 : Cross-Cultural Psych - Lec 6 - Culture, Self and Others (near-verbatim)

12 Pages
Unlock Document


PSYC14 Lecture 6: Culture, Self and Others PY Date: Oct 25, 2012 Slide 2: Outline  Culture and understanding of self – the heart of who we are can vary in important ways across cultures  Culture and understanding of others – the way we relate to others can also be shaped by culture  **highlight both universalities and differences in each of these topics Slide 4: Culture and Self-Descriptions  The way we define ourselves can impact the way that we perceive and interact with others  The way we describe ourselves can be influenced by culture in 2 important ways: o 1) Contents of statements o 2) Overall patterns or categories of statements  1) Culture can provide content for ways that we think about ourselves; statements about our fave sports, books etc; - can reveal our likes and dislikes and can go even further by revealing the affiliations/memberships that we have o These statements can come from anyone in world; the actual difference would be the content of them; difference lies in the exposure we have to the various music, sports etc; o We might appear highly similar across experiences but we vary across the content (the things that we would be thinking about)  2) Culture can impact the categories of self-descriptions we actually have o Ex) I am the oldest of my siblings. I am a mother of two. How do these 2 statements reflect culture? Person includes significant others in the description of the self. Define themselves in terms of roles that they have and in terms of relationship that they have – underscores idea that definition of self is dependent on others o Everyone will define themselves in terms of relationships/social roles AND also in terms of abstract, enduring, psychological attributes – slide 6 Slide 6: So, which is it?  2 separate categories: o 1) Abstract, enduring psychological attributes o 2) Relationships and social roles (context-specific)  Every person can be defined as both a distinct individual and a member of society  What varies across cultures is the degree to which a person views himself/herself in these 2 ways Slide 7: Kuhn & McPartland (1954) – Twenty Statements Test  Asks ppl to answer ‘Who am I?’ in 20 different ways  Measure has been across various cultures  Key findings: o 1) Western cultures emphasize personal characteristics more when describing themselves – Canadians, Australia, Britain & Sweden 1 PSYC14 Lecture 6: Culture, Self and Others PY Date: Oct 25, 2012 o 2) Other cultures emphasize on roles and memberships – Koreans, Malaysians, Puerto Ricans, Japanese, Native Americans  These 2 divergent patterns are evident earlier on, even as young as kindergarten Slide 8: Wang (2004) nd  Examined Eur American and Chinese kids (preschool to 2 grade) – examined the patterns of self-descriptions from above  2 open-ended questions that asked children to say as many things as possible about themselves  ‘You and I are going to play a fun game called question and answer game – can you finish this sentence?’ o A) ‘I am…’ o B) ‘ *Child’s name’ is …’ Slide 9: Wang (2004)  Self-descriptions were coded for content: o 1) abstract – events that happened regularly or multiple times (ex: My mom told me stories every night.); statements about qualities or traits that remained invariant over time and across situations o 2) specific – events that happened at a particular point in time (ex: Once I said a bad word, then they got mad at me.); when kids referred to attributes that were more situation-specific Slide 10: Wang (2004): Results  American kids described themselves in terms of personal attributes and abstract dispositions (‘I am funny’ or ‘I like to play sports’)  Chinese kids described themselves in terms of social roles and context-specific characteristics (‘I go to church on Saturdays’ or ‘I broke my arm last week’) Slide 11: Self-descriptions to Views of the Self  Cultural groups differ in the way they describe themselves, and such patterns are already evident early on  Self-descriptions are reflective of views of the self o The patterns of viewing oneself in 2 diff ways have come to be known as:  Independent views of the self  interdependent Slide 12: Independent view of self  see the self as being distinct and separate from others  core units of the self is defined by one’s: o abilities o opinions 2 PSYC14 Lecture 6: Culture, Self and Others PY Date: Oct 25, 2012 o characteristics o feelings o = everything that’s unique to the person  others are utilized as social comparisons; to look at the standards of expressing oneself Slide 13: Graphically illustrated independent view of self  individual circle – mother, brother, friend are all separated from each other – no overlap  the line surrounding the individual = solid line = indicates that the self is bounded and the person’s experiences is stable across situations; view of self is self-contained, is stable and coherent entity – doesn’t change much  border surrounding in-group is dotted line to indicate that these relations are actually dynamic o other ppl from the in-group can move to out-group and ppl from out-group can move to in-group quite easily o even though individual views significant others as being close to them, they are not fundamentally different from strangers  X’s represents the traits of the self that define person – traits, attitudes, abilities o Bigger the X the more important it is to reflect the person o Bigger Xs are at the individual; in contrast, interdependent view of the self, sees self as not distinct from others Slide 14: Interdependent view of self  Self is not distinct from other ppl  Core units of self = one’s significant relationships  Other are impt to guide for behavior and main motivation is to maintain harmonious relations with them  Self view of the self, see self-control as directed towards internal attributes that are adapted in order to maintain good relations with other ppl Slide 15: Illustrated interdepent view of self  Inside circle: significant others are overlapping with individual and other sig others – there are connections for sig others  Border surrounding in-group = solid line – means that distinction between ingroup and out- group is pretty stable and is consistent across time  Circle surrounding the ppl are now dotted lines = experiences are fluid and dynamic o Person can change according to situation  Influence of self can vary across diff situations  Bigger Xs found in overlapping areas; intersection of the relations  There are also aspects of the self that are UNIQUE to the self = represented by small Xs but not as many as the ones from independent view of self Slide 16: Not mutually exclusive 3 PSYC14 Lecture 6: Culture, Self and Others PY Date: Oct 25, 2012  Two views of self can be seen as a continuum  Every person has both independent and interdependent aspects of self  Vary the degree to which they are closer to the 2 views  How? What determines variability? o One of the determining factors is the situation that person finds themselves in o Ex) situations that highlight the independent view of the self will be more frequently encountered in individualistic culture where greater emphasis on personal goals; situations that stress the interdependent view of the self will be more frequently experienced in collectivistic cultures – collective goal o View of self isn’t just randomly distributed around world – merged and maintained by the cultural practices that sustain them  Each person has both independent and interdependent views of self; how closely they relate to each is what changes according to culture Slide 17: (A) Individualism/Collectivism  Cultural practices can help maintain these views  Independent view supported in individualistic cultures – separate room for baby, earn own money for entertainment, school, living  Interdependent view supported in collectivistic cultures – co-sleeping, parental support for entertainment, school and living  And so it seems that culture can help explain differences in views of self; can see themselves as distinct person or as member of the group Slide 18:  Hofstede did factor analysis of factors of workers to look @ dimensions – individualism/collectivism across 72 countries; But the picture isn’t as clear cut as just being collectivistic or individualistic o In a country that’s considered individualistic, not all of its members are individualistic; vice versa o US: Hofstede found US = most individualistic country but there are areas where collectivistic practices are endorsed (Hawaii, Utah) o Some collectivistic countries also have areas of individualistic practices (ex: Japan – examined by Kitayama et al 2006) Slide 19: Kitayama et al. (2006)  Hokkaido (northern island of Japan) whose residents practices endorse independence and agency o Sparse wilderness and then voluntary settlers from all over the country – established railroads, construction etc;  Examined if Hokkaido residents differ from residents of mainland Japan (collectivistic country) in term so happiness as defined in term so personal goals (as opposed to maintaining social 4 PSYC14 Lecture 6: Culture, Self and Others PY Date: Oct 25, 2012 harmony), as well as adherence to fundamental attribution error (ie, tendency to explain behavior based on personal traits and attributes – determining factor of beh).  Results showed that Hokkaido residents more likely associated happiness with personal achievement and more likely to commit the bias in causal attribution. Not found among mainland Japan residents  Former (vs. latter) display markers of individualistic tendencies  Every person can describe themselves as a distinct entity and as a group member; depends on context/situation; every person has independent and interdependent view of the self but over time the self-view will be what it’s more closely tied to  When you look at country as a whole, which is made up with these ppl, then you have countries with aspects of individualistic and collectivistic tendencies o Every country can be individualistic and collectivistic and the overall perspective of the country reveals the dimension it falls under Slide 20: Dimension mirrors self view  Just as every person can view oneself as independent and interdependent at the same time and just as in the overall pattern of context and time will reveal person’s view of self o The same way every country can have aspects of individualism and collectivism and o It is through the overall patterns of its members will we see which dimension the country falls under Slide 21: (B) Presence of other ppl (another aspect of the situation that can influence self-view)  Whether we encounter ppl as individuals or groups can impact the way we view ourselves  The identity of individuals may also matter - Study Slide 22: Kanagawa et al. (2001)  Examined the effect of context on the ways that ppl view themselves  Asked Japanese and American college students to complete the TST either (varied context): o Solitary – by themselves o Peer – w/ another participant o Group – with large group of ppl (20-50 ppl) o Authority – with experimenter  Examined self-description - Examined how positively and negatively they viewed themselves (ie – positive : negative ratio) o If high value, the person more +vely viewed themself Slide 23: Kanagawa et al. (2001) – Results  Yellow = US participants; Blue = Japan  US students had more positive descriptions about the self compared to Japanese counterparts o True across conditions  Japanese – their self descriptions varied across situations 5 PSYC14 Lecture 6: Culture, Self and Others PY Date: Oct 25, 2012 o Most critical about themselves when person of authority present Slide 24: Another way culture can impact self = via awareness  Self can be viewed in 2 perspectives: o A) Subjective self-awareness – view self as subject or observer of world  View self from inside out; you are aware of the ppl around you, not so much yourself o B) Objective self-awareness – view self as object of another person or observed  View self from outside in; we are conscious that we are being seen and we are being evaluated by others; you are aware that someone else is observing you  How might culture impact ppl’s self-awareness? o If a person endorses interdependent view of the self are more likely to take on objective self-awareness; want to fit in and work harmoniously with others  How do differences in self-awareness impact the way we behave? Slide 25: Cohen and Gunz (2002)  Examined Asian-Canadians and European-Canadians as they completed a memory questionnaire  Recall instances depicting 1
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.