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PSY100H1F : Psychology Chapter 13-15

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Psychology: Chapters 13 – 15 Chapter 13: Personality Personality: Characteristic thoughts, emotional responses and behaviours that is relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances Personality Trait: a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in certain ways over time and across circumstances Approaches to Personality Psychodynamic Theory: → unconscious forces influence our behaviour → instincts: mental representations arising out of biological or physical need o Topographical model of mind: 3 zones of mental awareness o Unconscious: material that the mind cannot completely attain o Preconscious: not aware fully but could be brought to awareness o Conscious: aware o Psychosexual stage : the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges -> occur from birth to adolescence o “oral personalities” and “anal personalities” o Structural Model of Personality: o Id: completely in the unconscious operates with pleasure o Superego: internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct o Ego: tries to satisfy the wishes of id while being responsive to the dictates of superego o Keypoint: personality result’s from the ego’s use of defense mechanisms to reduce the anxiety of oppositional demands of the id and the superego Humanistic Approaches → Approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems they propose that people seek personal growth through greater self-understanding  to fulfill their human potential Focus: subjective human experience Positive Psychology: researches subjective well-being o Maslow: desire to become self-actualized is the ultimate and most important human motive - Recall Maslow’s theory of motivation (Chapter Nine) o Rogers: most prominent humanistic psychology is, emphasized people’s subjective understandings of their whole lives o Seligman: positive psychology movement - Subjective well-being - Broaden and build theory – positive emotions prompt people to consider novel solutions to their problems Type and Trait Approaches o Personality Types – discrete categories o Personality is a collection of traits that vary and that exist in a hierarchy of traits that vary and that exist in a hierarchy of importance o Eysenck’s Hierarchical Model – lesser traits are organized under larger biologically based traits (extroversion, emotional stability, psychoticism) o Carl Jung – introversion/extroversion o Five Factor Theory – similar to Eysenck’s model o Openness to Experience o Neuroticism o Conscientiousness o Extroversion o Agreeableness Main Point: Factors exist at more than a descriptive level Learning and Cognition Kelly: personal constructs develop through people’s experiences and represent their interpretations and explanations for events in their social world o Internal Locus of Control: Reward from Self o External Locus of Control: Reward Beyond Control o CAPS model – Mischel How is Personality Assessed? Unique and Common Characteristics Idiographic – person centered: unique patterns of an individual’s characteristics i.e. human life as a narrative, personality unfolding Nomothetic – characteristics common to all people but on individuals i.e. questionnaires, “individuals are unique because of their unique combos of common traits” Researcher’s Use Objective and Projective Methods to Asssess Personality Projective – evaluate the unconscious issues a person projects onto ambiguous stimuli i.e. ink blot test (not too good), Thematic Apperception Test studies achievement motivation (shown an ambigious picture and use that story personal motives), its too subjective but good for measuring motivational traits. Objective – straight forward assessments usually involves – report questionnaires or observer ratings i.e. measure ONLY what raters believe/observe, problems with self-report difficult too Observers Show Accuracy in Trait Judgements  close acquaintances may better predicts a person’s behaviour than the person can o i.e. friends were able to pick up on the person’s behaviour more accurately than the person themselves People Sometimes Are Inconsistent  Situationism: behaviour is determined more by situations than personality traits o i.e. Michael proposed that situations are more important than traits in predicting behaviour o there are situations where people are completely honest in one situation but dishonest in another Behaviour is Influenced by the Interaction of Personality and Situations  situations vary in the extent to which they both influence behaviour and interact with personality to determine behaviour  STRONG SITUATIONS vs WEAK SITUATIONS o Strong: tend to discourage displays of personality i.e. a funeral o Weak: tends to let people behave more freely i.e. chilling with friends  Interactionists: theorists who believe that behaviour is determined jointly by underlying dispositions and situations  People also affect their social environments …it’s important to note that people choose their environments o I.e. introverts tends to avoid parties or other situations where they might be anxious  Just mainly understand that personality reflects both underlying dispositions and activations of goals and of emotional responses in given situations Cultural and Gender Differences  The BIG five is generally universal among cultures  Self-reports match cultural stereotypes about the respondents  Recall Eastern thinking vs. Western thinking  Cross-cultural research presents problems because of translation issues, cultural norms for self- reporting and individuals’ judgment of themselves relative to other people from their own cultures What are the Biological Bases of Personality? Animals Have Personality  Animals have distinct personality traits that correspond with the BIG Five like in humans do Personality is Rooted in Genetics  Twin and adoption studies have found that personality variations is due to genetics o Personality characteristics are influenced by multiple genes and their expression is the result of interaction with environment Temperaments are Evident in Infancy  Temperaments biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways o Long Term Implications – early childhood temps significantly influence behaviour and personality throughout your life o Gender and Temperaments – girls demonstrate a stronger ability to control their attention and to resist their impulses, whereas boys are more physically active and experience more high-intensity pleasure o Shyness and Inhibition – extent to which people are shy is linked to early differences in temperament  Temperaments : the general tendencies of how people behave are biologically mediated and observable in infants Personality is Linked to Specific Neurophysiological Mechanisms  Cortical arousal is regulated by the ascending reticular activating system  characteristics of introversion/extroversion (Hans Eysenck)  The behavioural approach system and the behavioural inhibition system affect variations in arousal and the behavioural responses o BAS – the brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards o BIS – the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behaviour danger/pain Note:  Signals of potential reward are processed by the BAS: activates  Signals of potential punishment are processed by the BIS: inhibits Personality is Adaptive  Variations in individuals personality and skills benefit a group and provide an advantage for group survival o Individual differences reflect characteristics resulting from random processes, that were trivial importance over the course of evolution o May reflect the inheritance of alternative strategies that become activated according to situational contects o Human groups whose members possess all diverse skills have a selective advantage over other human groups Personality Traits are Stable over Time  Lowest for young children, highest for people over 50 years  Biological and environmental factors are more stable in adulthood  Characteristic adaptations change across time and circumstances  Basic tendencies are biologically based but characteristic adaptations are influenced by situations (page 612) How Do we Know Our Own Personalities? Self-Awareness Self-schema Working Self-Concept Allows us to act in accordance to Cognitive aspects of self- Immediate experience of self or the values and beliefs they hold knowledge : helps us perceive, any given time : limited to the (i.e. won’t cheat when can what organize, interpret, and use amount of personal information is being done) information about the self also that can be processed helps us filter cognitively at any given time; we like to pick things that distinguish us from others Perceived Social Regard Influences Self-Esteem  it is influenced by people’s beliefs about how other people view them  Sociometer theory: an internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection o Theneed to belong influences social anxiety relative to self esteem Note: self-esteem may also be influenced by death anxiety…it may also be less important than is commonly believed We Use Mental Strategies to Maintain Our Views of Self:  Positive illusions of self are common  Self-esteem is influenced by comparisons to others  Self-serving bias helps maintain positive self-esteem and may be culturally influenced There are Cultural Differences in the Self  Collectivistic: interdependent self-concepts  Individualistic: independent self-concepts Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders Opener: Capgras syndrome and Tony Rosato →psychopathology : disorder of the mind Psychological Disorders Are Classified into Categories Etiology : factors that contribute to the development of a disorder Multiaxial system : The system used in the DSM that provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health factors The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders is a multiaxial system for diagnosing groups of symptoms in the contexts of related factors Psychological Disorders Must be Assessed Assessment is the process of examining a person’s mental function and psychological health to make a diagnosis. Assessment is accomplished through interviews, behavioral evaluations, and psychological testing o Structured Interviews : More standardized questions, planned out etc. o Unstructured Interviews : Topics vary more as the interviewer probes different aspects of the person’s problems o Types of Testing: A psychological assessor often can gain valuable information simply by observing the client’s behaviour o Evidence-Based Testing: is an approach to clinical evaluation in which research guides the evaluation of mental disorders, the selection of appropriate o Comorbidity : Mental disorders commonly overlap (page 635) Dissociative Identity Disorder Is a Controversial Diagnosis Billy Milligan – Multiple personalities disorder scenario DID is the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual - Tends to be high in women - The separate identities usually differ substantially, such as in gender, sexual orientation, age, language spoken, interests, physiological profiles and patterns of brain activation…even handwriting can differ - It is controversial because people may fake its symptoms Psychological Disorders Have Many Causes Disorders may arise from psychological factors, such as family dynamics or socio-cultural context. They may be the result of learned, maladaptive cognitions. Biological factors also underlie mental illness. The diathesis-stress model looks at mental disorders as an interaction among multiple factors. In this model, stressful circumstances may trigger a disorder in an individual with underlying vulnerabilities - Diathesis – Stress Model: A diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event - Biological Factors: comparison of mental disorders between fraternal twins and identical twins and studying those who have been adopted. Biological factors often reflect vulnerabilities and situational factors often play prominent roles in the expression of mental disorders - Psychological Factors: play a role in the expression and treatment of mental disorders o Family Systems Model - considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems within the family. Problems that arise within an individual are manifestations of problems within the family o Socio Cultural Model – views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals and their cultures - Cognitive – Behavioural Factors: A diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive cognitions…abnormal behaviour is learned - Sex differences in Mental Disorders – some are more common for males and some more common for females o Internalizing disorders – more common in women includes, negative emotions such as distress and fear o Externalizing disorders – more common in men includes , alcoholism, conduct disorders and anti-social behaviour - Culture and Mental Disorders: most mental disorders show universal and culture-specific symptoms; they may be similar around the world but cultural differences are reflected o Disorders with a strong biological component are more similar across cultures Can Anxiety Be the Root of Seemingly Different Disorders? There Are Different Types of Anxiety Disorders Phobias are exaggerated fears of specific stimuli. Generalized anxiety disorder is diffuse and omnipresent. Panic attacks cause sudden overwhelming terror and may lead to agoraphobia. OCDs involve anxiety-related thoughts and behaviours. - Phobic Disorders o Social phobia – fear of being evaluated negatively by others  Generally comorbid with other psychological disorders - Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Constantly anxious and worry incessantly about even minor matters and slightly more common in women o Panic disorders – typically last for several minutes during which the victim begins to sweat and tremble o Agoraphobia – fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible…avoid going into open spaces and or to places where there might be crowds - OCD o Compulsions – acts that the OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over again i.e. cleaning, checking and counting Anxiety Disorders Have Cognitive, Situational, and Biological Components The etiology of OCD involves genetics as well as brain dysfunction. The irrational thoughts that accompany panic attacks may lead to agoraphobia through cognitive-behavioural connections - Cognitive factors : - Biological factors: - Situational factors: Note: most likely, biological and cognitive behavioural factors interact to produce the symptoms of OCD The caudate is smaller in the brain for people with OCD …the prefontal cortex becomes overactive in an attempt to compensate Are Mood Disorders Extreme Manifestations of Normal Moods? There are Different Types of Mood Disorders Mood disorders reflect extreme emotions Depressive Disorders Bipolar Disorder -feature persistent and pervasive feelings of -involve radical fluctuations in mood sadness, can be major or less severe -Manic episodes are characterized by elevated -major depression: severe negative moods or lack mood, increased activity, diminished need for of interest in normally pleasurable activities sleep, grandiose ideas, racing thoughts, and - Can include weight loss, loss of energy, extreme distractibility sleep disturbances, difficulty -Kay Redfield Jamison acknowledged her own concentrating, feelings of self-reproach or struggles with manic depression guilt, thoughts of death or suicide -Margot Kidder played Lois Lane also had bipolar -Dysthymia : A form of depression that is not disorder severe enough to be diagnosed as major depression Mood Disorders Have Cognitive, Situational and Biological Components The biological factors of depression include genetics, frontal –lobe functioning and serotonin modulation, as well as biological rhythms. Negative thinking and poor interpersonal relations also contribute to depression. - Biological factors are involved in depression and much evidence suggests that major depression involves a deficiency of one or more monoamines (regulate emotion and arousal and motivate behaviour) - Certain neural structures may be involved in mood disorders - Damage to the left prefrontal cortex can lead to depression – brain waves of activity show low activity in these same regions in the left hemisphere - Situational factors are also important! - Cognitive processes also play a role  cognitive triad : depressed people perceive themselves, situations and the future negatively, may also make errors in logic (Aaron Beck) - Learned Helplessness Model: A cognitive model of depression in which people feel unable to control events around them (Martin Seligman) What is Schizophrenia? - “Splitting of the mind” - Is a psychotic disorder meaning it is characterized by alterations in thoughts, in perceptions or in consciousness Schizophrenia Has Positive and Negative Symptoms Positive Symptoms Negative Symptoms Are excesses in behaviour Are deficits in functioning - Delusions: false beliefs based on - Avoid eye contact and seem apathetic, do inferences about reality (Table 14.5 p. 655) not express emotion even when discussing - Hallucinations: frequently auditory, emotional subjects although they can also be visual, olfactory, - Negative symptoms often persist or somatosensory : auditory hallucinations - Negative symptoms may be associated are voices that are accusatory with abnormal brain anatomy since - Loosening of associations – a speech structural brain deficits are not affected by pattern among patients with schizophrenia changes in neurochemistry in which their thoughts are disorganized or meaningless (unrelated topics) …also have clang associations which is the striking together of words that rhyme but have no link - Disorganized Behaviour : acting strange or unusual ways including strange movement of limbs, bizarre speech, and inappropriate self-care such as failing to dress properly or bathe Schizophrenia is Primarily a Brain Disorder The brains of people with schizophrenia have larger ventricles and less brain mass with reduced frontal and temporal lobe activation. A variety of neurochemical and neural structural abnormalities exist as well. - Schizophrenia have rare mutations of their DNA about three to four times more often than do healthy individuals, especially in genes related to brain development and to neurological function - Note: no single gene causes it but rather multiple genes - It is more likely a problem of connection between brain regions than the result of diminished or changed functions of any particular brain region - Studies suggest that schizophrenia develops over the life course but that obvious symptoms emerge by late adolescence and that hints of future problems may be evident even among young children Environmental Factors Influence Schizophrenia Urban environments may trigger the onset of schizophrenia. Trauma or pathogens encountered by pregnant women may increase the likelihood of the disorder in their children - Environmental stress seems to contribute to its development - Increased stress of urban environments can trigger the onset of the disorder, since being born or raised in an urban area approximately doubles the risk of developing schizophrenia later on in life - Little is known about how environment interacts with biological factors Are Personality Disorders Truly Mental Disorders? Some ppl interact with the world in maladaptive and inflexible ways; when this is long-lasting and causes problems in work and social situations it becomes a personality disorder: they are relatively common…but those with true personality disorders show a more extreme level. Personality Disorders Are Maladaptive Ways of Relating to the World Odd behaviours, extreme emotions, and fearful behaviours are characteristic of personality disorders. Whether some of these extremes are true psychopathologies is controversial. Odd or Eccentric Behaviour Paranoid Tense, guarded, suspicious; holds grudges Schizoid Socially isolated, with restricted emotional expression Schizotypal Peculiarities of thought, appearance, and behaviour that are disconcerting to others; emotionally detached and isolated Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Behaviour Histrionic Seductive behaviour; needs immediate gratification and constant reassurance; rapidly changing moods; shallow emotions Narcissistic Self-absorbed; expects special treatment and adulation; envious of attention to others Borderline Cannot stand to be alone, intense unstable moods and personal relationships; chronic anger; drug and alcohol abuse Anti-Social Manipulative, exploitive, dishonest, disloyal, lacking in guilt, habitually breaks social rules, childhood history of such social behaviour; often in trouble with the law Anxious or Fearful Behaviour Avoidant Easily hurt and embarrassed; few close friends; sticks to routines to avoid new and possibly stressful experiences Dependent Wants other to make decisions, needs constant advice and reassurance;
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