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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 .odt

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University of Toronto St. George
Matthias Niemeier

Lecture 5 - Reinforcement Chapter 4 ➢ *We already know how to measure and graph behaviour ➢ Critical Questions  What is the principle of reinforcement?  How is positive reinforcement different from negative reinforcement?  How are unconditioned reinforcers different from conditioned reinforcers?  What factors influence the effectiveness of the reinforcement?  What are intermittent schedules of reinforcement and how do they affect the rate of behaviour? ➢ What is reinforcement?  The process in which a behaviour is strengthened by the immediate consequence that reliably follows it's occurrence  This process has shaped our behavioural repertoire (for better or worse) since the moment of birth.  Reinforcement was discovered by Thorndike but research on this was mostly done by Skinner → He used rats to experiment → Skinner Box ➢ Important  The terms reinforcement and positive reinforcement are often used interchangeably. ➢ Definitions  Operant behaviours  Are those that operate/interact on the environment to generate consequences, and are in turn influenced by those consequences.  Reinforcers  Bre those consequences that strengthen an operant behaviour  * but what's reinforcing for 1 person may not be reinforcing for another ➢ What's the difference btwn positive and negative reinforcement?  Negative → removal of aversive stimulus  Positive → adding a pleasurable stimulus. ➢ Important Terms  Stimulus  Any object/event that can be detected by any of the 5 senses and has the potential to influence behaviour. • Positive or aversive  Negative reinforcement is NOT the same as punishment • The confusion lies w/ the use of the term “negative” • Negative reinforcement = involves an aversive stimulus being removed ➢ So is it Positive OR Negative?  1) What's the target behaviour?  2) What happened immediately after the behaviour (stimu
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