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Lecture 10

PSYB64 - Lecture 10.odt

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University of Toronto St. George
Matthias Niemeier

Lecture 10 – Emotion,Aggression, & Stress Emotions ➢ Difficult to study (just like sleep) ➢ We behave differently, and different people show different emotions in response to the same situation ➢ Our expressed emotions may not reflect what we feel inside ➢ Different degrees of happiness, sadness, etc. ➢ Facial expressions and body language help us communicate ➢ We're good at facial expressions but maybe not that good at body language. ➢ Body postures can be beneficial to animals and humans (provides social info for danger, etc) ➢ Controlling Facial Expression  2 nerves: facial nerve and trigeminal nerve  Upper 1/3 of face controlled differently: ipsilaterally & contralaterally ==> bilaterally?  Bottom 2/3: controlled contralaterally  Different pathways as well: Spontaneuous (subcortrical system) vs. Voluntary smiles (motor cortex) are controlled by different pathways.  Some pple with damage cannot voluntarily smile, but can do spontaneuous smiles. So these smiles are managed by different areas of the brain.  Biological Influences  Paul Ekman  No training needed to identify emotions  Universal  Happiness, disgust, anger, embarassment, fear, contempt. All other emotions are expressions of these  Animal Facial expressions  Hard to interpret  Dogs: they all look the same  Primates: Barred teeth = submissive to a dominant animal, not smiling. Open mouth is a play face, sort of happy   Environmental influences on Emotions  The presence of others intensifies our emotional expression  More intent facial expressions to odours when other people are around you  Can We Spot Liars?  Liars slip up in body language: less upper body movement, nervous smiles, laugh a little bit more inappropriately.  Polygraphs are unreliable • 40% of innocent pple were found guilty • 25% of guilty people were found innocent  Functional MRI can be used to look at brain activity: good be more useful  Theories of Emotion  James-Lange Theory (1920s) • perceived stimulus • physical sensation • then, feel the emotion  Canon-Bard Theory • Physical & Subjective feeling at the same time  Schachter-Singer Theory • Perceived Stimulus • General Arrousal • Associate it it with the context (Assessment of Surroundings) • Then feel an emotion (subjective feeling)  Biological Correlates of Emotion  Autonomic Nervous System • flight or fight response • ANS produces different patterns of arrousal during different emotional states. • Whether you're happy or sad. • Easy to see when we have a positive or negative emotion • Hard to tell the diff btwn 2 negative emotions or 2 positives (autonomic measures) •  Amygdala (in the temporal lobe) • 3 sets of nuclei • central nuclei • corticomedial nuclei • basolateral nuclei • Associated with fear (Research with rhesus monkeys) • Kluver-Bucy Syndrome • removed both temporal lobes(including both amygdalas) from rhesus monkeys • They are usually agressive (& intense fear of snakes) but afterwards, they were calm • Oral exploration, hypersexual, no fear of snakes. • Change in emotional responses • There's a fear circuit in the brain involving the amygdala • What about humans? • Damage to amygdala also produces difficulty in processing fear • Can't identify what fear is or what it looks like. • Fear Conditioning in Rodents •
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