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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - PSYB64.odt

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University of Toronto St. George
Matthias Niemeier

Lecture 2 – PSYB64 Anatomical Directions ➢ Anterior, Rostal  Head end of the four legged animal ➢ Inferior, Ventral  Towards the belly ➢ Superior, Dostral  Towards the back ➢ Posterior, Caudal  Tail end 3 orientations for viewing the brain ➢ Coronial  Front & back ( looking at brain in the face)  Slice of bread ➢ Sagittal  Side view  Midsagittal  Brain is divided into equal halves ➢ Horizontal (axial)  Divided into top and bottom (hamburger bun) Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System ➢ Meninges  3 layers provide protection  Dura Mater  Arachnoid • Subarachnoid space  Pia Mater ➢ Cerebrospinal Fluid  Secreted in hollow spaces in the brain known as ventricles  Circulates through ventricles, subarachnoid space and the the central canal of the spinal cord ➢ Blood supply  Brain receives nutrients from the carotid arteries and vertebral arteries Video ➢ Hydrocephalus ➢ Abnormality of the brain ➢ The flow of cerebral inside the brain is blocked (therefore can't exit) and so pressure builds up inside cause the brain tissue is being pushed to the side. ➢ Enlarged ventricles occur during birth and surgery doesn't necessarily correct the size problem. ➢ Fatal ➢ Cat scans to view effects of Hydrocephalus ➢ Normal brain = ventricles have a butterfly shape • Tissue completely fills in the skull • Distributes task evenly ➢ Abnormal brain = Tissue does not completely fill the skull? • Functions in Sharon's brain have been re-distributed following Hydrocephalus ➢ Valve implant operation to save lives ➢ Can observe brain activity using xenon gas. ➢ Both cases demonstrate brain plasticity. How certain parts take over the damaged parts. ➢ In the end both individuals did end up developping quite normally. Blood Supply ➢ Posterior, anterior and other parts of the brain all have different structures supplying them with the blood. ➢ Critical that there's a constant supply of blood ➢ Carries oxygen ➢ 3 mins without blood and we see brain damage ➢ Can\t store glucose or oxygen ➢ Brain takes 20% of our blood Organization of the Nervous system ➢ Central & Peripheral ➢ Focus on central ➢ Central: Brain and Spinal Cord ➢ Telencephalon : Basal ganglia, limbic system, neocortex (we`ll focus on these)  Most of the brain ➢ Diencephalon: Thalamus & Hypothalums ➢ Metachephalon: Cerebellum & Pons ➢ Myelincephalon: Medulla Overview of the CNS ➢ Spinal Cord  Extends from medulla to the first lumbar vertebra  4 key areas  Cervical  Thoraic  Lambar  Sacral  (Coccygeal)  Gray matter in the middle  Central canal right in the center  White matter around the edges  We also have nerves ➢ Hindbrain  Myelincephalon (Medulla)  breathing regulation  life support activities  Riticular Formation  Metencephalon (Cerebellum & Pons)  When we have damage in the hindbrain it results in death ➢ Midbrain  small region of the brain  subtantia nigra (damage = Parkinsons)  superior (above) & inferior (below) colliculi : they are cell bodies ➢ Forebrain  Diencephalon  Thalamus • Relay station • Involved in sensory processing  Hypothalumus • Sleep , arousal, temperature, control  Telecephalon (huge area)  Basal Ganglia • Diseases: Parkinsons disease (deteroration of the substantia nigra) , Huntington`s Chorea • Parkinson`s with Rigidity (Video) • problem with movement  Limbic System
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