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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - PSYB64.odt

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Matthias Niemeier

Lecture 3 ➢ Neurons and Glia (cells that make up the brain)  Neuron (piece of tissue of the cell)  Neural membrane (skin = think of our skin) &Cytoskelelton provides the neuron's shape (think of our bones)  Neuron membranes separate intracellular fluid from extracellular  Along this membrane is where we get changes in potential  Components : Cell body (soma), Axon, Dendrites (coming off the cell body)  Ion chanels • ions can only go through ion chanels • sometimes they're closed and sometimes they're open, sometimes they're specific letting certain ions to come through and others not to come through • different ion channels on a neuron membrane.  Phospholipid layers on neuron membrane • studed with proteins  We have ion pumps • difference btwn this and the channels, is that channels allow • if you have more ions than on inside there needs to balance. Ion channels focus on concentration inside and outside • Pumps are different and require energy and they pump out and in against the ion concentration.  Cytoskelelton • 3 main components used for transporting molecules that may be needed at the axon terminals or cell body • size is the difference btwn the components • Microtubule (small) • HELD in place by a molecule called Tau • sometimes we can get a breakdown (it may disconnect from microtubule due to phosphates?) • Microtubules collapse and form Neurofilliary tangles =Alzheimer's Disease • If it continues to be broken down = neuronal death • Neurofilament (larger...transporting larger stuff) • Microfilament (largest) • Can transport to cell body or axon terminal  Components  Cell body (soma) contains nucleus and other organelles (phone)  Dendrites: branches that serve as locations at which info from other neurons in received (listening to someone talk ; receive info) • Info comes into dendritic spines (stick out of the dendrites) • Infant with mental retardation: spines are coming out (immature)  Axon: carry neural messages to other neurons; very in diameter & length, vary on whether they are covered in myelin or not. • Passing on info from one cell to another (all have axons and dendrites) • Communicate
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