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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 Part 1.odt

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Matthias Niemeier

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Developmental Psychology - Lecture 7 (Oct 28/09) Neo–Piagetian Research  Left a complex theory that has generated an enormous amount of research on cognitive development  Research on sensory motor stage o Detailed sequence of children’s abilities o 2 abilities children gain  1)object permanence • Prior to this stage, if kids couldn’t see it, they didn’t know it was there. Don’t acquire this until 12 months of age • Experiment: Habituation Display  Screen would rotate and comes into contact with the box. She compared with impossible display, the screen rotates 180 degrees and then the box reappears? Impossible cause it violates principle of solidity. If kids have notion of object permanence then they would still think the box exists.  A test of object permanence  If they can see impossible display as being impossible, they would have knowledge of the box even if the screen was covering it.  THEREFORE 4/5 month old infants show evidence of object permanence.  Piaget’s task involved motor tasks where kids were required to reach out. They probablly new object was there but they couldn’t produce the movements to prove it? That’s why he thought object permanence was at 12 months of age. nd  2 study • “A-Not-B Error” • Infants have motor skills to recover the toy • They hide a toy in A location and the infant recovers it. Then they hide it in the B location in front of the child. What happens is that infant still searches for it in A location • Infant thinks that object only exists in that particular location so they haven’t developed object permanence.  Maybe infants are failing this task not because of a problem with conceptualizing this object but maybe the kid just has a bad memory. So maybe its not object permanence. So how do we test this?  Did an alternate study  B location is all the way at the other end.  They make a prediction.  If an infant does not remember where object is then they will search either B or one of the cups near B (at a diff location)  What they found is that infants are to search in cups near B location. So infants just have bad memories, not an issue of object permanence.  Clearly there’s evidence that infants have some knowledge of object permanence earlier than Piaget has originally thought.  Piaget’s notion of Imitation o Piaget thought that infants don’t show imitation until ....... o Piaget set up complex imitation sequences. Infants could show imitation much earlier in life if the gestures were simple. Instead of using complex behaviour, and use things that babies can easily do like facial movements since they’re not good at motor movements. 1 classic study(1994), infants were shown different facial expressions (Sticking tongue out) o Babies have imitative abilities as long as it’s natural o That was Piaget’s problem, he didn’t use behaviours that were natural for the babies o Infants 6 week olds will show this kind of imitation behaviour o So both imitation and object permanence are there earlier than Piaget thought.  Piaget’s notion of ego-centrism (pre-operational period) o Children can only view the world from their own point of view  ego- centric o How did Piaget test this. o Pic of dog on one side and cat on the other side and showed it to a 3 yr old. Ask kid wat he sees and ask what experimenter sees. Kid should assume that experimenter will see what kid sees. But the kid knows that the experimenter has a diff view of the card than 3 yr old does. He knows that experimenter can see a cat so therefore this shows that children are not ego-centric.  Idea of conservation o Conservation of volume o Once you train the child to acknowledge this, child in pre-operational period tends to generalize this to other topics. They generalize it to a totally unknown situation. (Water to Clay) o Concrete operations  Certain skills have to occur before other skills  They have conserve height before they conserve area  Formal operational o Some children will achieve logical thinking skills than piaget had previously thought. Children can handle logical thinking if you present it to them in a logical way o 8 yr olds can reason and tell you
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