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Ch.5 Sensation vs. Perception.pdf

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Ch.5 Sensation vs. Perception January-28-13 6:15 PM • Sensation- involves detection of external stimuli, responses to those stimuli, transmission of responses to the brain • Sensation about going to world to the brain • Transduction- process by which sensory receptors pass impulses to connecting neurons when they receive stimulation • Stimuli need to be translated into chemical or electrical signals to be understood • Information route: thalamus-> cortex • Perception- involves the processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals in the brain, which results in an internal representation of the stimuli- and conscious experience of it • Important: ○ Everything experienced in brain ○ World is entirely constructed by you ○ Context is important ○ Change is important • Absolute threshold- the minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before you experience a sensation • Difference threshold- just noticeable difference between two stimuli (minimum amount of change) • As intensity increases, larger difference threshold • Signal Detection Theory- Determining whether you notice a faint stimulus or not requires you to make a judgement based on ambiguous information • Response bias- person's tendency to report detecting a signal in an ambiguous trial ○ Hit- stimulus on, response yes ○ Miss- stimulus on, response no ○ False alarm- stimulus off, response yes ○ Correct rejection- stimulus off, response no • Sensory adaptation- if stimulus is constant, humans stop responding to it (decreasing sensitivity to constant stimuli) • Stimuli for taste- chemical substances from food dissolved in saliva • Taste receptors- (in taste buds) send signals to brain -> produces experience of taste • Taste experience composed of: ○ Sweet ○ Salty ○ Sour ○ Bitter ○ Umami (savory) • Smell and texture also important- TASTE EXPERIENCE OCCURS IN BRAIN! • Stimuli for smell- chemical substances from outside the body that dissolve in fluid on mucous membranes in nose • Olfactory epithelium0 thin layer of tissue embedded with smell receptors transmits info to olfactory bulb (brain center for smell) • Good at discrimination, but not at naming specific odors Touch • Temperature receptors • Haptic receptors- for pressure • 2 types of pain receptors • Somatosensory cortex-- responds to sensory information • Nerve signals -> thalamus -> primary stomasensory cortex in parietal lobe • Phantom limb pain- experience occurs in brain, so people may still experienced pain • 2 kinds of pain receptors: • Fat myelinated fibers- sharp, immediate pain (protection) • Slow, nonmyelinated fibers- dull steady pain (recuperation) • Pain is a perceptual experience • Gate control theory of pain- For pain to be experienced, pain receptors must be activated; neural gate in spinal cord must signals through to the brain • Distractions, larger haptic nerve fibers, can close neural gate Vision • Have blind spots, usually goes unnoticed • Accommodation- muscles change shape of lens, flattening an focus
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