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Human Development

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Human Development • Developmental psychology focuses on the physiological, cognitive, and social changes that occur in individuals across the lifespan Present at birth • The five senses: sight, smell, sound, taste, touch • Reflexes: grasping, rooting (always looking for food –nipple- eg: babies sucking on fingers), sucking Attachment • Adaptive  encourages proximity between child and mother • Oxytocin  the “cuddle hormone” involved in breastfeeding, sexual encounters, etc. • Imprinting – Critical vs. sensitive periods • Harlow’s Study: Attachment in Monkeys - “Mom as milk” vs. “Mom as comfort”  The monkeys ended up going to the “comfort mom” to get protection from danger and in most of other situations. Attachment • Mary Ainsworth’s strange-situation test: - Secure attachment: Approx. 65% of children upset when caregiver leaves, but easily comforted upon their return - Avoidant attachment: Approx. 20-25% of children little distress when caregiver leaves, avoids the caregiver upon their return - Anxious/ambivalent attachment: Approx. 10-15% of children extremely upset when caregiver leaves, and reject the caregiver upon their return Cognitive Development • Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development – During each stage of development, children form new schemas  ways of perceiving, organizing, and thinking about how the world works – Two key learning processes • assimilation  in
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