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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

09/10/12 Learning Learning : An enduring change in behaviour, resulting from experience Conditioning: A process in which environmental stimuli and behavioural responses become connected:  Classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning: occurs when we learn that two types of events go together.  Operant ( or instrumental) conditioning: occurs when  Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a reflexive response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already produces that response ( jump and close eyes when there is a loud noise, dog salivates when food is put in front of its face)  Pavlov’s dog: - Before conditioning: Food without bell salivation Just bell sound  no salivation - During conditioning: food with bell soundsalivation - After conditioning: just bell sound salivation = dog has learnt to associate food with bell sound = acquisition  Acquisition: The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli  Extinction: A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus  Spontaneous recovery: a process in which a previously extinguished response re- emerges and is learnt again very fast.  Stimulus generalization: Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.  Stimulus discrimination: A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus.  Second-order conditioning: When something is consistently paired with the conditioned stimulus, without the unconditioned stimulus, and leads to a conditioned response.  Phobias are acquired fears that are out of proportion to the real threat of the object or situation. Classical conditioning: later developments  Not all CS-CR pairings are the same  Some associations are easier to learn than others e.g., flavour + illness  Conditioned food aversion: associating a particular food with an unpleasant outcome (eg., illness), can be formed in one trial, even if the illness doesn’t occur right away  Biological preparedness: refers to the idea that animals are genetically programmed to fear some objects more than others. So what about cognition? Why is a slight delay between the con
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