Learning : An enduring change in behaviour, resulting from experience
Conditioning: A process in which environmental stimuli and behavioural responses become
Classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning: occurs when we learn that two types of events
Operant ( or instrumental) conditioning: occurs when
Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a
reflexive response because it has become associated with a stimulus that already
produces that response ( jump and close eyes when there is a loud noise, dog
salivates when food is put in front of its face)
- Before conditioning: Food without bell salivation
Just bell sound no salivation
- During conditioning: food with bell soundsalivation
- After conditioning: just bell sound salivation
= dog has learnt to associate food with bell sound = acquisition
Acquisition: The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and
Extinction: A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the
conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous recovery: a process in which a previously extinguished response re-
emerges and is learnt again very fast.
Stimulus generalization: Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the
conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
Stimulus discrimination: A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one
of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus.
Second-order conditioning: When something is consistently paired with the
conditioned stimulus, without the unconditioned stimulus, and leads to a
Phobias are acquired fears that are out of proportion to the real threat of the object
or situation. Classical conditioning: later developments
Not all CS-CR pairings are the same
Some associations are easier to learn than others e.g., flavour + illness
Conditioned food aversion: associating a particular food with an unpleasant outcome
(eg., illness), can be formed in one trial, even if the illness doesn’t occur right away
Biological preparedness: refers to the idea that animals are genetically programmed
to fear some objects more than others.
So what about cognition? Why is a slight delay between the con