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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Personnality  Personality: The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviours that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances  Strong Situations: - Powerful social environments mask differences in personality - E.g., Job interviews, funerals, hanging out with your boss  Weak Situations: - Allow people to behave more freely; easier to discern personality differences - E.g., At home, at a bar, hanging out with friends Different Ways of Studying & Understanding Personality  Unconscious processes - E.g., Sigmund Freud  Personal experiences - E.g., Carl Rogers  Trait approaches (most common approach these days) - E.g., Hans Eysenck  Cognitive approaches - E.g., Walter Mischel Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory  Emphasizes the influence of unconscious forces on behaviour - Id: pleasure principle; impulses, desires and wishes. Very self-focused and selfish - Superego: Can be considered as the opposite of Id, rigid and moral based entity that drives your behaviour. - Ego: ourselves, trying to choose which of the two to follow ( Id; devil on your shoulder, superego, angel on your shoulder)  These two battle and from that, anxiety comes out  Defence mechanisms: Unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself Note that Freud’s theories are not used that much anymore as they were not testable Humanistic Approaches  Emphasize personal experience and belief systems; propose that people seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential  self-actualization  Roger’s person-centred approach - Phenomenology  Subjective human experience - Unconditional positive regard - He believed that parents should show unconditional positive regard (unconditional love) in order for children to fully develop. • Positive psychology – E.g., Barbara Frederickson; Broaden-and-build theory Type & Trait Approaches  Personality type: Discrete categories based on global personality characteristics - Implicit personality theory we tend to believe that certain personality characteristics go together  Personality trait: A characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances - The trait approach emphasizes the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions Eysenk’s Hierarchical Model  Introversion/Extroversion  Emotional Stability; how stable your emotions are  Psychoticism (Constraint); how aggressive or impulsive you are The Big Five (or Five-Factor Theory) OCEAN • Openness to experience • Conscientiousness • Extroversion • Agreeableness • Neuroticism Cognitive Approaches • Cognitive-social theories: – Bandura  human’s possess mental capacities, such as beliefs, thoughts, and expectations, that interact with environment to influence behaviour • Self-efficacy • Observational learning – Mischel’s cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) • Situationism; he believed that the situation around an emotion is the most important thing. Eg; if you have a test, how you did in the last test might influence your result, if you know you studied enough,
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