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PSYB30 - Lec#2.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Connie Boudens

th Lecture #2 – WK2 – Jan 16 , 2013 Trait Approaches Trait: a consistent pattern of behaviour, emotion, and thought - Each trait is a way of defining your environment o Stability over time and situations o Distinctness btwn ppl Personality: sum of all traits Trait theories provide desc. ‘s that must be explained by other theories - No developmental aspect - Doesn’t explain underlying or subconscious factors Theorists try to establish - Framework within which any and all persons can be described - Taxonomy (classification scheme) of traits o “Big 5” o A list o Raymond Cattell Approaches to Discovering Traits - Lexical approach -> takes words that desc. Common personality traits (going through dictionary, removing synonyms to get a list) - Statistical (Empirical Approach -> work from data collected on ppl - Theoretical approach -> building from a theory, sometimes already theorised from someone else o Introvert vs. Extrovert (Carl Jung) Common traits and Trait Continua - Common traits shared by all o To a greater or lesser degree, not just b/c of human - Behaviours can be represented on trait continuum-each person can be placed somewhere on continuum - Scores assumed to be normal distributed (fewer ppl scare in the extreme on any trait) Common traits and Nomothetic Approach - Nomothetic – ordering ppl among dimensions that everyone has - Ordering ppl among these dimensions is nomothetic approach in most trait theories - Compares ppl among the same personality dimensions o Ex. Comparing CDN’s and Americans in the trait of risk-aversion - Contrast with idiographic approach o Idiographic: in depth study of individuals  How environment influences them, how different parts of their personality comes out in different situations Gordon Allport Key Ideas - Advocate of idiographic approach - Uniqueness = combination of traits - Use of diaries, interviews, behavioural observations, q-sort (sort words w/traits in to “is it like me?” – y or no), etc., to assess personality o Various personality traits are organized in categories (1-8) on a scale of how much like them it was Traits -> internal structures that render many stimuli functionally equivalent and yield sim. Adaptive and expressive behaviours - Ex. Shy person might all social situations as threatening and react w/anxiety - Ex. Person who is very helpful might see many situations as opportunities to help others Some Stats Basics - Correlations = relationships btwn 2 variables o Number of cards and grade on exam o + or – (-1.00 to 1.00 - Variable that might correlate to grades o - Grade in school - beer consumed weekly o - Highest grade completed by parents - # of roommates o - Hrs spent studying - illness o - # of index cards prepared - personal problems o - Test anxiety - Factor Analysis attempts to reduce the # of variable to a limited number of factors variable Factor 1 2 3 Cattell’s 16: Warmth Reasoning Ability Emotional Stability Sominance Liveliness Rule Consciousness Social Boldness Sensitivity Vigilance Abstractness Privateness Apprehension Openness to Change Self-reliant Perfectionism Tension Second-order factors - Further factor analysis can be done to reduce Cattell’s 16 ( or other trait taxonomies) to a lower number - Second-order analysis often results in 3 or 5 factors Hans Eysenck - Theoretical approach (Hippocrates, Jung, etc.) - Biological/Neurological causes for behaviour o Personality: individual difference in bio/neuro functioning Personality Types - Focused on higher levels of trait organization could ? types - Types incorporates traits - Each traits incorporates habits Types Conceptualized as 3 bipolar dimensions - Extraversion: outgoing ???? - Psychoticism: toward psychosis and/or sociopathy but to lesser extent (ex. Recklessness a disregard for common sense, or connections degree of inappropriate emotional expression ?????? - Neuroticism: emotional instability - PEN model (Psychoticism, Extraversion, Neuroticism) Biological basis for Personality
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