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PSYB30 - Lec#4.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

1 th Lecture #4 – WK5 – Feb 6 , 2013 Personality Assessment - Personality Assessment: the process of evalutating individual differences throught tests, interviews, and observations o Involves a systematic, standardized procedures for observing measuring, and recording behaviours and personality features o Developed a system, standardized steps What makes a good personality test? Reliability (same results no matter how many times given) across: • TIME o different administrations of the test, test-retest • ITEMS o Chronbach’s Alpha (greater than 0.70) (0.80 to be fairly reliable) o Questions on a test cover the scope of the tests intended use (C. Alpha – how the q’s hang together, correlation) • RATERS *Interrater reliability Validity: • CONSTRUCT o Ex. Self-confidence o Not able to measure directly, has to consider what it really means (does the test really measure this) • FACE o Does the test look like it’s about that construct o The Baxter Retching Faces Scale (The BARF Nausea Scale) – has the highest face validity • Criterion o Of special concern in test development  Convergent validity  Discriminant validity Types of Personality Assessment - Dream analysis - Interviews - Observation - Objective tests o MMPI o MBTI o NEO-PI (r) - Projective Tests o Sentence completion o Rorschach Inkblot test o Thematic Apperception Test Dream Analysis - Psychodynamic Approach: Sigmund Freud & ass. 2 - Freud: Dreams represented the unconscious desires of the dreamer o To reduce anxiety, ego disguises the true (latent) content of dreams using symbols (manifest content) . Manifest content is analysed to discover repressed feelings o Things that you weren’t aware of, gave direct access to subconscious “Royal Road” to the unconscious, conflict is resolved Interviews - Face-to-Face meeting to get info about someone’s personality, current psychological state, personal history, etc. o Structured->follows a pre-arranged plan using a series of planned questions o Semi-Structured o Unstructured -> conversation informal, topics discussed as they arise Potential Biases - Confirmation Bias -> making an inference at the outset and asking questions to confirm it - Halo effect -> generalizations based on predominant features, which may be unrelated to personality (attractiveness) (the opposite effect - “horn effect”) - Social Desirability -> faking good, dissimulation – hiding things about yourself (disorganised), faking bad (tough, mean, etc in prison) Observation Assessing behaviour through direct surveillance - Direct Surveillance - Selecting Observers o Professional Personality Assessors o People who actually know the target person  Commonly done with children -> parent know them better  Often in better position to observe target’s natural behaviours in a variety of contexts  May be biased by their relationship to target Natural vs. Artificial Observation - Naturalistic observers: record events that occur in the normal course of lives of the participants - Artificial: occurs in artificial settings or situations. Advantage: controlling conditions and eliciting relevant behaviour Objective Personality Measures - Involve standard set of questions or statements o Same for everybody ex. “I am easily embarrassed” T/F - Person’s response to standardized questions compared to standardized norms - From responses, develop a picture called a personality profile - Responses compared to established norms 3 - From responses, develop a picture called a “personality profile” - Possible Response Options: o T/F or Y/N
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