Class Notes (838,076)
Canada (510,662)
Psychology (3,528)
PSY100H1 (1,637)
Lecture 8

PSY100 Lecture 8 (October 4th, 2012).pdf

10 Pages
70 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley W.Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 8 (October 4 , 2012) th Morad Moazami Auditory  Perception:     Sound  travels  through  the  air  live  a  wave.  Amplitude  is  the  y  exist,  so  the  higher  the  amplitude,   the  higher  the  sound.  Frequency  is  the  cycles.  The  frequency  determines  our  perception  of   pitch.     Ear  Anatomy:     What  happens  when  sound  hits  the  ear?   • Sound  waves  go  into  the  ear  canal  and  vibrate  the  ear  drum.   • The  eardrum  vibrates,  causing  the  ossicles  (bones  in  middle  ear)  to  move  back  and   forth.  The  mechanical  movement  of  these  bones  vibrate  the  cochlea.   • Different  parts  along  the  cochlea  correspond  to  different  frequencies,  like  the  keys   on  a  piano.   • A  neural  signal  travels  from  the  cochlea  through  the  auditory  nerve  to  the  brain.     Between  the  Ears  and  the  Brain:     Lots  of  sound  processing  happens  along  the  auditory  pathway  between  the  cochlea  and  the   auditory  cortex.     Sound  to  the  right  ear  is  processed  by  the  left  hemisphere.     Sound  Processing  in  the  Brain:     Primiar  Auditory  Cortex  is  the  first  place  in  the  cortex  that  is  devoted  to  sound  processesing.     The  Dorsal  “Where”  Stream  is  the  pathway  that  processes  spatial  info…  Where  is  that  sound   coming  from?     Ventral  “What”  Stream:  the  pathway  that  processes  identity  info…  What  kind  of  sound  (music,   speech)  is  that?     Every  Day  Acoustic  Environments  are  Noisy     How  does  the  auditory  system  separate  different  sounds  from  one  another?     Sound  Segregation:     We  must  be  able  to  segregate  or  separate  different  sounds  when  they  occur  simultaneously   (known  as  concurrent  sound  segregation).     We  must  also  be  able  to  group  or  integrate  over  time  (sequential  sound  segregation).     Grouping  Principles  in  Audition:     Like  vision,  the  way  we  perceive  our  auditory  environment  is  thought  to  follow  some  Gestalt   grouping  principles.     Concurrent  Sound  Segregation:  Grouping  by  Frequency     This  represents  a  complex  harmonic  sound.     The  fundamental  frequency  is  200  Hz.     Each  component  is  a  tone  at  a  frequency,  which  is  an  integer  multiple  of  the  fundamental   frequency  (200  Hz).     All  components  or  “harmonics”  are  separated  by  200  Hz.     Adding  extra  frequency  adds  a  richness  to  the  sound.     What  if  we  mistune  the  2  Harmonic?  By  mistuning,  I  mean  to  move  it  up  or  down  in  frequency   so  that  its  frequency  is  no  longer  at  an  integer  multiple  of  the  fundamental  frequency  (200  Hz).       Sequential  Sound  Segregation:  Grouping  by  Frequency     This  can  be  figured  by  the  A-­‐B-­‐A  Paradigm.     Because  there  is  a  small  frequency  separation  between  A  and  B  tones,  with  grouping  into  one   stream,  “Gallop”  perception  occurs.     Real  Life  Application:     Imagine  you’re  eating  at  crowded  restaurant  with  a  friend.  Your  friend  is  telling  a  story  but   there  is  a  lot  of  background  noise.       Every  day  acoustic  environment  are  noisy.     Perception  of  sounds  relies  on  Gestalt  grouping  principles,  like  visual  perception.       You’re  a  Real  Pain  in  the  Brain     Mylinated  fibres  cause  sharp,  immediate  paoin.  Slow,  nonmyelinated  fibres  are  dull  and  steady   pain.     Ate  Control  Theory  of  Pain:  In  order  for  pain  to  be  experienced,  pain  receptor's  have  to  be   activated,  Based  on  a  neural  gate  is  the  must.  The  neural  gate  in  the  spinal  cord  must  allow  the   signals  through  to  the  brain.  If  the  gate  is  open,  pain  is  felt.  If  it  isn’t,  it  won’t  be  painful.     In  the  military,  you’re  severely  injured  and  you  don’t  even  realize  until  after  the  battle  that   you’re  having  a  severe  injusry,  because  the  gate  here  is  closed  because  you’re  distracted  by   other  things.     All  that  distracts  us  in  the  bed,  go  away  at  the  end  of  the  night  and  so  we  are  left  with  the  pain.     There  are  not  only  top-­‐down  things  like  distraction  that  can  block  the  fibers  from  getting  in  to   the  gate.  That’s  why  rubbing  something,  like  an  itch,  help  it  go  away.     Vision:     Vision  is  our  most  important  sense.  It  is  the  one  spent  most  time  studying,  and  the  sense  where   we  really  know  the  most.       The  Cornea  is  the  clear  window  in  the  front  of  the  pupil  and  with  the  lens  focuses  the  image   onto  the  retina.     The  Iris  is  the  colored  part  of  the  eye.     The  Retina  receives  light  and  records  visual  messages.     The  Optic  Nerve  carries  visual  messages  from  the  retina  to  the  brain.     The  Pupil  is  the  hole  in  the  Iris  that  controls  the  amount  of  light  entering  the  eye.     There’s  more.  Find  it  in  lecture  notes.     Accommodation:  Muscles  change  the  shape  of  the  lens,  flattening  it  to  focus  on  distant   objects  and  thickening  it  to  focus  on  a  closer  subject.     Photoreceptors:  Convert  the  energy  from  light  particles  (photons)  into  a  chemical  reaction   that  produces  an  electrical  signal.     Rods:  Retinal  cells  that  respond  to  how  levels  of  light  and  result  in  black  and  white  perception.   About  120  million  in  each  retina,  located  along  the  edges.     Cones:  Retinal  cells  that  respond  to  higher  levels  of  light,  and  result  in  color  perception.  About   6  million  in  each  retina,  located  in  the  fovea.     Rods  and  Cones:     Lightwaves  enter  the  eye.  It  hits  our  rods  and  cones  with  photo  pigments  which  transduce   these  waves  int  electrical  signal.  From  the  rods  and  cones,  it  will  reach  bipolar,  amacrine  and   horizontal  cells.  Then  they  reach  the  Ganglion  cells  which  generate  action  potential.  The  axons   of  the  Ganglian  cells  are  all  bundling  together  to  form  the  optic  nerve,  that  will  then  reach  the   Thalamus.         The  thalamus  goes  to  the  primary  visual  cortex,  and  information  unless  going  to  a  few  distinct   places  of  the  brain.  We  can  distinguish  the  primary  visual  cortex  to  our  ventral  “what”  stream”   and  our  Dorsal  “where”  stream,  each  processing  different  information.     What  Versus  Where:     Visual  areas  beyond  the  primary  visual  cortex  form  two  parallel  processing  streams.     Dorsal  “where”  stream:  Specialized
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit