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Lecture 10

PSY100 Lecture 10 (October 16th, 2012).pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
Ashley W.Denton
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 10 (October 16 , 2012) th Morad Moazami Attention  and  Memory,  Part  I:     Attention:     In  order  for  something  to  potentially  be  remembered,  it  must  be  attended  to  in  the  first  place.     Attention  is  selective.  It  has  to  be  selective  because  it  is  limited.  Selective  attention  is  adaptive.     We  don’t  know  all  the  details  about  our  watch  when  we  look  at  it,  because  we  don’t  need  to.   Why  do  we  need  that  information?  Our  mind  doesn't  encode  it  because  we  don’t  want  to  know   anything  about  our  watch  but  the  time  on  it.  The  same  goes  for  a  20  dollar  bill.  This  is   something  we’ve  seen  a  million  times,  but  we  don’t  encode  what  we  see  on  it.  We  just  know   we  can  exchange  it  for  stuff.     We  talked  about  change  blindness  before,  about  individuals  who  you'd  ask  them  for  direction   and  you'd  switch  out  the  person  and  the  person  didn't  notice  that  the  person  was  a  completely   different’  person  that  they  were  before.     Change  blindness:  the  common  failure  for  people  to  notice  large  changes  in  their  environment.     Examples  of  Selective  Attention:     Visual  Search  Tasks:     These  involve  targets  and  distractors.  Searching  for  one  feature  is  fast  and  automatic  (parallel   processing).  The  experimental  group  is  told  to  find  a  blue  circle,  and  it  doesn’t  take  you  long  to   find  a  blue  circle.  The  target  will  pop  out  at  you.   • You’re  processing  all  these  things  all  at  once,  all  these  colors,  because  you’re  only   looking  for  one  feature  –  the  blue  color.  Because  you’re  searching  for  it,  it  pops  at   you.     • Our  target  is  the  blue  circle  and  everything  else  is  a  distractor,  but  in  parallel   processing,  it  doesn't  matter  how  many  distractors  we  have.     It  doesn't  matter  how  many  distractors  we  have  if  we’re  looking  for  one  thing.  The  target’s   going  to  pop  out  at  us.     In  serial  processing,  we're  searching  for  two  (or  more)  features.  This  is  slow  and  effortful.  You   must  examine  each  target  one-­‐by-­‐one.       Selective  Listening:     This  is  the  cocktail  party  phenomenon,  where  certain  things  will  just  grab  your  attention.     Shadowing:  Shadowing  is  this  process  where  participants  will  come  into  a  lab  and  they  will   listen  to  two  different  messages  processed  in  different  ears.  A  person  listens  to  two  different   messages  (one  presented  to  the  left  ear,  and  one  to  the  right)  and  one  only  attends  to  one  of   the  messages,  because  they  have  to  repeat  it  aloud.   • Generally,  the  person  has  no  conscious  knowledge  about  the  information  being   presented  to  the  other  (unattended,  ear).     Models  of  Memory:     The  information  processing  model:   • Encoding  phase:  Information  is  acquired  and  processed  into  a  neural  code  that  the   brain  can  use.   • Storage  phrase:  the  retention  of  encoded  information  (whether  it  is  for  a  second  or   a  lifetime).   • Retrieval  phase  Recalling  or  remembering  the  stored  information  when  we  need  it.     The  modal  memory  model:     • It  has  the  same  kind  of  processes,  but  sort  of  elaborates  them  more  and  makes  them   more  complicated  and  more  accurate.     • We  have  our  sensory  input  that  goes  into  sensory  memory,  which  is  memory  for   sensory  information  that  lasts  only  a  fraction  of  a  second,  which  we  are  not  even   aware  of  usually.     • Then  our  sensory  memory  goes  into  our  short-­‐term  memory.  It  is  memory  that  will   remain  for  only  about  20-­‐30  seconds,  unless  you  actively  think  about  or  rehearse  it.   For  example,  remembering  a  phone  number  or  license  plate.  You  have  to  do   something  to  actively  remember  that  information.     • Then  finally,  we  have  our  long-­‐term  memory:  the  relatively  permanent  storage  of   information.  It  differs  from  working  memory  in  terms  of  both  duration  and  capacity.   You  long-­‐term  memory  almost  has  this  unlimited  capacity  to  process  information.     Working  Memory:     Seven  (plus  or  minus  two)  has  been  the  standard  for  the  amount  of  information  we  can  hold  in   our  working  memory.     What  we  do  to  help  allow  us  to  store  more  information  is  we  can  do  something  called  chunking,   where  we  chunk  numbers  together  in  order  to  remember  them.  This  is  organizing  information   into  meaningful  units  to  make  it  easier  to  remember.  KFC  CEO  UBC  PHD  UTM  (6  units)  is  much   easier  to  remember  than  KFCCEOUBCPHDUTM  (15  units).     The  working  memory  system  has  four  components:   • Phonological  loop:  remembers  auditory  information.   • Visuospatial  sketchpad:  remembers  visual  and  spatial  information.   • episodic  buffer:  information  about  oneself.  
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