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Lecture 11

PSY100 Lecture 11 (October 18th, 2012).pdf

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Ashley W.Denton

Lecture 11 (October 18 , 2012) th Morad Moazami Memory:  Part  II     Long-­‐Term  Memory:  Information  Organization     Retrieval  cue:  Anything  that  helps  someone  recall  information  from  memory.   • This  could  be  a  word,  a  sight,  a  smell,  etc.   • Encoding  specificity  principle:  Any  stimulus  that  is  encoded  along  with  an  experience   can  later  trigger  memory  for  the  experience.     Context  dependent  memory:  Memory  enhancement  that  occurs  when  the  recall  situation  is   similar  to  the  encoding  situation.   • May  be  similar  in  terms  of  psychical  location,  background  music,  odors,  etc.     Examples:  Context  Dependent  Memory     Scuba  divers  learning  a  list  of  words  either  underwater  or  on  land  (and  then  recalling  the  words   either  underwater  or  on  land).  They  were  then  asked  to  recall  those  words  on  whether  they   were  on  land  or  underwater.  What  happened  is  that  they  recalled  more  words  if  the  reall   situation  matches  the  encoding  situation,  so  if  you  learned  these  words  while  you  were   underwater,  you’d  remember  the  words  better  underwater  than  on  land.       Learning  a  list  of  words  with  instrumental  background  music  or  white  noise  (and  then  recalling   the  words  while  the  same  instrumental  music  or  white  noise  played).     This  same  idea  also  applies  to  when  you  revisiting  a  childhood  home  or  school  that  you   suddenly  get  back  a  “flood  of  memories.”     If  you  can’t  recreate  your  situation,  you  can  mentally  visualize  the  encoding  environment  can   also  work.     Stress  can  interfere  with  context-­‐dependent  memory.     State  dependent  memory:  Memory  enhancement  that  occurs  when  one’s  internal  state  during   the  recall  situation  is  similar  to  the  encoding  situation.     The  Biology  of  Memory:     Memories  are  stored  in  multiple  regions  of  the  brain  and  linked  through  memory  circuits.     Different  memory  systems  use  different  brain  regions.     We’ve  learned  a  lot  about  this  when  we  study  patients  who’ve  had  a  portion  of  their  brain   removed.  For  example,  the  text  books  makes  an  example  of  Patient  H.M.     Medial  temporal  lobes:  Important  for  the  consolidation  of  new  declarative  memories.   • Responsible  for  coordinating  and  strengthening  the  connections  among  neurons   when  something  is  learned  (but  not  the  storage  of  memories).   o Patient  H.M.  was  unable  to  form  long-­‐term  memories  after  the  age  26  when   they  removed  parts  of  his  brain  to  stop  his  seizures.   § H.M.  still  had  parts  of  his  procedural  memory,  so  even  though  he   didn't  remember  doing  a  task  from  day  to  day  to  day,  he  got  better  at   it,  showing  that  some  of  his  procedural  memory  was  s  till  in  place.   o Clive  wearing  is  another  example.     Reconsolidation:  Occurs  every  time  a  memory  is  activated.  It  may  differ  from  the  original   memory.  Because  it  is  reconstructed  and  reconsolidated  every  time  it’s  recalled.  If  you’ve  told  a   story  from  your  childhood  over  and  over  again,  chances  are  that  it  has  been  modified  over   time.  Our  memories  get  flawed  and  biased  and  changed  from  the  original  memory.     Hippocampus:  Particularly  important  for  spatial  memory.  This  is  memory  for  the  physical   environment  (location  of  objects,  directions,  cognitive  maps).   • For  example,  the  London  cab  drivers,  or  else  Rats  and  the  Morris  Water  Maze.  Rats   are  put  into  this  pool  of  water  and  so  there  is  this  platform  in  the  water,  but  they   have  no  idea  where  it  is,  until  they  come  across  it  randomly.  By  the  8  trial,  the  rat   knows  where  the  platform  is,  so  he  swims  straight  to  that  platform.  Rats  with   hippocampul  damage  don't  get  to  do  that,  they  cant  form  spatial  memories.     Frontal  lobes:  Crucial  for  encoding  and  involved  in  many  aspects  of  memory,  for  example,   working  memory  (making  goals,  keeping  plans,  etc.).  They  are  also  important  for  going  from   your  immediate  memory  to  your  long-­‐term  memory.  They  are  also  important  for  chunking.       Amygdala:  The  memory  of  emotional  events.  For  example,  the  people  wo  were  downtown   Manhattan  on  9/11.     Cerebellum:  Procedural  memory,  like  motor  learning,  eyeblink  conditioning,  remembering  how   to  ride  your  bike.       Memory  Modulators:  Neurotransmitters  that  weaken  or  enhance  memory.  For  example,   epinephrine  and  norepinephrine  activity  in  the  amygdala.     Forgetting:     At  the  beginning  of  the  class  we  were  told  to  remember  words  related  to  sleep,  and  halfway   through  the  class,  we  were  asked  to  recall  the  words,  and  one  of  the  words  we  recalled  was   “sleep,”  but  that  word  wasn't  there.  This  is  basically  us  creating  dales  memories.     wouldn't  it  be  great  if  you  never  forgot  anything?  Maybe  not.  Think  of  Jill  Price:  The  woman   who  can’t  forget.     There's  clearly  some  benefit  for  us  not  remembering  everything.  We  have  these  powerful   psychological  immune  systems  that  help  us  edit  out  things  in  our  memory.     Transience:  the  pattern  of  forgetting  over  time.  Most  of  this  occurs  because  of  interference.     Interference:  when  some  other  piece  of  information  is  getting  in  the  way  of  the  information   we're  trying  to  remember.   • Proactive  interference:  When  prior  information  inhibits  the  ability  to  remember  new   information.   o For  example,  memory  of  your  old  phone  number  interfering  with  your  ability   to  remember  your  new  phone  number.   • Retroactive  interference:  When  new  information  inhibits  the  ability  to  remember   old  information.   o For  example,  memory  of  your  current  postal  code  interfering  with  your   ability  to  remember  your  old  postal  code.     Blocking:  The  temporary  inability  to  remember  something  that  is  known.   • The  tip-­‐of-­‐the-­‐tongue  phenomenon.     Absentmindedness:  Forgetting  due  to  shallow  encoding  or  failing  to  pay  attention.   • For  example,  not  remembering  where  you  put  your  keys.  You  weren’t  paying   attention  and  so  you  forgot  where  your  keys  were.  Or  remembering  somebody’s   name.  You’re  not  paying  attention  when  you  are  introduced  to  someone  and  you   just  don't  remember  their  names.     Memory  Distortion:     Misattribution:  Misremembering  the  time,  place,  person,  or  circumstances  involved  with  a   memory.  For  example,  thinking  you  told  your  friend  something  when  you  didn't.  You  just   imagined  telling  them  or  you  told  another  friend.   • False  fame  effect:  If  you  bring  participants  into  a  lab  and  you  give  them  a  list  of   names,  hen  they  come  back  into  the  lab  after  a  while,  and  you  ask  if  the  person  is   famous,  and  the  persn  sees  the  name  and  think  that  it’s  famous  because  they  feel   some  sort  of  familiarity  with  that  name  even  though  they  only  saw  it  the  day  before.     • The  sleeper  effect:  You're  up  late  one  night  and  you’re  watching  an  infomercial  and   you’re  disregarding  the  source  completely,  so  you  disregard  the  message,  but  then   later  on,  you  forget  the  source  of  the  information,  and  now  you  believe  the   information.     Suggestibility:  Misremembering  after  being  told  misleading  information.     • How  fast  were  the  cars  going  when  they  _____  into  each  other?   o Answers  are  bias  depending  on  the  word  used  in  the  blank.     False  memories  can  be  surprisingly  easy  to  plant.   • For  example,  “Remember  the  time  you  got  lost  in  the  mall?”     Eye  Witness  Testimony:     We  are  all  really  crappy  eye  witnesses,  but  when  you  are  a  juror  listening  to  a  trial  and  there  is   a  witness  on  the  stand  and  they  point  to  a  person,  that’s  really  convincing  evidence.  It’s  very   effective  testimony,  but  it  gets  people  locked  up  for  things  they  didn't  do.     It  is  very  difficult  to  distinguish  an  accurate  eyewitness  from  an  inaccurate  one.     • Confidence  is  unrelated  to  accuracy.   o Just  because  someone  is  very  confident  in  their  account  of  a  crime  does  not   mean  that  they  are  remembering  correctly.     People  tend  to  focus  on  weapons  or  actions,  nor  minor  details  (for  example,  clothing,   appearance).     Summary:     Attention  determines  what  is  remembered.     Memory  involves  encoding,  storage  and  retrieval.     There  are  different  stages  of  memory  (sensory  -­‐-­‐>  short  term  -­‐-­‐>  long  term).     There  are  multiple  long-­‐term  memory  systems  (episodic,  semantic,  procedural).     Memories  are  reconstructed  every  time  they  are  recalled.     Memories  can  be  forgotten,  distorted,  or  false.     Thinking  and  Intelligence,  Part  I:     How  do  we  organize  and  represent  knowledge?     How  do  we  use  knowledge  to  solve  problems  and  make  decisions?     How  do  we  understand  intelligence?     How  Do  We  Represent  Knowledge?     A  representation  is  anything  that  stands  in  for,  or  corresponds  to,  something  else.     • For  example,  a  map  is  a  representation  of  city  streets;  a  portrait  is  a  representation   of  a  person.     A  mental  representation  is  a  hypothetical  internal  cognitive  symbol  that  represents  external   reality.     Cognitive  psychologists  are  interested  in  understanding  cognition  -­‐  how  we  think  and  represent   information  (our  internal  mental  processes).     Types  of  Mental  Representations:     Analogical  representations:  Mental  representations  which  have  some  of  the  characteristics   of  (i.e.  they  are  analogous  to)  actually  objects.   • You  t
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