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Lecture 13

PSY100 Lecture 13 (October 25th, 2012).pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley W.Denton

Lecture 13 (October 25 , 2012) th Morad Moazami Motivation  and  Emotions     What  are  the  factors  that  motivate  behavuir?   • What  motivates  you  to  eat?   • What  motivates  you  to  study?   • What  motivates  you  to  ask  someone  out  on  a  date?     Why  do  we  have  emotions  and  how  do  they  influence  our  behavior?     Needs  and  Drives:     Drives,  like  hunger,  are  psychological  states  that  encourage  behaviors  (like  eating)  that  satisfy   needs  (for  example,  food).   • They  encourage  behavior  by  increasing  arousal.     Arousal  is  a  general  term  that  can  encompass  many  things:  changes  to  our  autonomic  nervous   system,  etc.  –  whatever  motivates  behavior  and  helps  us  do  what  we  want  to  be  satisfied.     As  we  get  hungrier,  our  arousal  gets  higher,  and  we  get  motivated  to  get  our  food.     This  is  Maslow’s  hierarchy,  which  is  very  popular  and  seems  to  sum  up  things  very  well.  At  the   top  of  the  pyramid  are:   • Self-­‐fulfillment  needs:   o Self-­‐actualization:  achieving  one’s  full  potential,  including  creative  activities,   • Psychological  needs:   o Esteem  Needs:  prestige  and  feelings  of  accomplishment   o Belongingness  and  love  needs:  intimate  relationships,  friends   • Basic  needs:   o Safety  needs:  security,  safety,   o Physiological  needs:  food,  water,  warmth,  rest     In  order  for  the  needs  at  the  top  to  be  fulfilled,  the  needs  at  the  bottom  first  need  to  be   fulfilled.       It  is  not  only  our  internal  drives  that  guide  our  behavior.   • We  eat  when  a  food  tastes  good!     Incentives:  External  stimuli  (as  opposed  to  internal  drives)  that  motivate  behaviors.   • For  example,  the  food  tastes  good,  so  we  eat  though  we  are  not  hungry.     Eating:     What  do  we  choose  to  eat?  What  determines  what  we’re  eating?     Cultural  beliefs  and  personal  experience  are  really  important  in  determining  what  kind  of  foods   we  eat.     We  like  sweet  things,  we  avoid  bitter  things  -­‐  because  lots  of  poisons  and  things  we  don't  eat   are  bitter.     There  are  also  differences  in  what  we  eat  when:  we  eat  eggs  for  breakfast  but  we  don’t  eat   spaghetti  in  the  morning.  There’s  no  reason  not  to.  It  just  has  to  do  with  cultural  norms.     Religious  observances  largely  determines  diet  too  (pork  or  cow).       When  Do  We  Eat?     We  all  tend  to  get  hungry  roughly  at  the  same  times.  So  why  is  lunch  at  12:00  PM?  We  just   associated  that  time  with  lunch  time.  You  go  to  school  and  that  is  lunch  time  when  you  were  in   school.  For  example,  you’d  get  hungry  at  10:15  in  school,  because  that  was  recess  and  then  you   become  conditioned  to  eat  at  10:15.     We  also  will  eat  when  we’re  hungry.     In  Canadian  culture,  lunch  is  generally  from  noon  to  two-­‐o-­‐clock;  this  is  a  standard  idea  of  what   lunch  is.  Lunch  is  a  very  different  meal  in  cultures  and  it  tends  to  be  a  much  larger  meal  and   businesses  will  shut  down  so  people  will  go  to  eat  lunch.     Why  Do  We  Eat?     There  are  different  signals  that  we  get  in  our  brain.  It  has  a  lot  more  to  do  with  your  brain   compared  to  what’s  going  on  in  your  stomach.       The  world  of  the  hypothalamus  in  eating:  the  hypothalamus  is  important  for  these  drives  we   have  like  eating  and  thirst.  The  experimenters  damage  different  parts  of  the  rats’  brain.   Damage  to  the  Ventromedial  region  (VMH)  causes  the  rats  to  lose  the  part  of  their  brain  that   tells  them  they  are  full.  The  lateral  (LH)  getting  damage  will  have  its  brain  forget  to  tell  the  rat   that  they  are  angry.  Therefore,  damage  to  the  hypothalamus  produces  dramatic  changes  in   eating  and  body  weight.   • So  the  rats  either  eat  and  eat  and  eat  and  they  never  get  the  signal  to  stop  eating.   This  is  hyperphagia.   • The  other  rats  don’t  get  the  signal  to  them  that  they  need  to  eat.  They  have  aphagia.     There  are  lots  of  other  theories  regarding  the  internal  signals  responsible  for  hunger  and   satiation.   • Leptin  is  a  hormone  released  from  fat  which  travels  to  the  hypothalamus  and   inhibits  eating  behavior.   • Ghrelin  is  a  hormone  from  the  stomach  that  surges  before  eating  and  decreases   after  eating.   • Glucostatic  theory:  glucose  levels  in  the  bloodstream.   • Lipostatic  theory:  set-­‐point  for  body  fat.   o Every  individual  has  some  set  level  of  body  fat  that  their  body  needs,  and  if   they  deviate  from  that  set  point,  they  either  need  to  eat  more  or  eat  less.     How  Much  Do  We  Eat?     When  there  is  a  greater  variety  of  food,  we  tend  to  eat  more  of  it.     So  the  idea  is  that  there  is  a  sensory  specific  society.  We  get  tired  of  the  same  thing  so  we  can   go  on  and  eat  something  else.     This  is  an  evolutionary  thing.       Portion  sizes  have  greatly  increased  over  the  years  and  obesity  has  increased  too,  of  course.   You  get  crazy  large  portions  of  food.     Plate  sizes  have  changed  over  a  decade.  Plate  sizes  do  determine  how  much  we  eat.     The  difference  between  what  an  8-­‐inch  plate  is  holding  than  what  a  10-­‐inch  plate  is  holding  is  a   lot  of  difference.     Needs  and  Drives:     Arousal  motivates.     The  Yerkes-­‐Dodson  Law  says  that  we  need  an  optimal  need  of  arousal,  because  if  our  arousal   level  is  too  low,  our  quality  of  performance  is  low  and  if  our  arousal  level  is  too  high,  our  quality   of  performance  will  still  be  low  (imagine  the  concept  of  stress,  and  how  if  you’re  too  stressed   you  can’t  do  your  job,  just  like  if  you’re  not  stressed  at  all).     Extrinsic  motivation:  motivation  to  perform  an  activity  because  of  the  external  goals  toward   which  the  activity  is  directed.     Intrinsic  motivation:  motivation  to  perform  an  activity  because  of  the  value  or  pleasure   associated  with  the  activity,  rather  than  for  an  apparent  external  goal  or  purpose.     Rewarding  Intrinsically  Motivated  Behavior:     If  we  reward  learning  and  give  positive  reinforcement,  the  behavior  gets  increased,  but  there   are  a  lot  of  problems  when  we  touch  rewards  with  intrinsically  motivated  behavior.     They  gave  a  kids  at  a  kindergarten  markets  to  draw  with,  but  they  told  some  kids  that  if  you   play  with  the  markets  you’ll  get  a  reward,  a  good-­‐player  certificate.  So  a  group  expected  to  get   something,  another  expected  nothing,  and  another  group  won  the  reward  even  though  they   didn’t  expect  it.     The  kids  had  free  time,  and  what  percentage  of  their  free  time  did  they  take  drawing  with  their   colored  markers?  Those  who  got  the  reward  spent  less  time  doing  their  tasks  compared  to   those  who  didn't  expect  a  reward.       When  those  kids  did  it  when  they  were  getting  a  reward  for  it,  what  goes  on?     Self-­‐determination  theory  would  say  that  the  kids  who  were  playing  with  the  markers  to  get  the   reward  thought  of  the  reward  and  thought  they  didn't  have  a  choice  and  just  wanted  their   reward.     The  other  kids  just  enjoyed  playing  with  the  markers.     Self-­‐perception:  when  we  think  about  an  attitude  we  have  towards  something,  we  think  of  our   own  behavior.     Self-­‐Regulation:     Self-­‐regulation  is  the  process  by  which  people  alter  or  change  their  behavior  to  attain  personal   goals.     People  differ  in  self-­‐efficacy.   • Those  low  in  self-­‐efficacy  think  it  doesn't  matter  how  much  effort  I  put  into  this,  I’m   not  going  to  win  anyway.   • Those  with  self-­‐efficacy  think  they  have  a  lot  of  control  and  they  are  going  to  get   better  and  attain  those  goals  that  they  want.   • Self-­‐efficacy:  how  much  you  think  you’ll  be  able  to  do  what  you  want.     Self-­‐regulation  is  difficult!  Often  involves  postponing  short  term  rewards  and  instead  pursuing  a   long-­‐term  goal.     Some  researchers  say  that  it’s  a  limited  resource.         Some  psychologists  view  self-­‐regulation  as  similar  to  exercising  a  muscle  –  over  time,  we   become  fatigued.     Self-­‐regulation  as  a  limited  resource  (Baumeister):     Participants  came  into  the  lab  and  they  were  hungry.  They  were  told  not  to  eat  for  at  least   three  hours  and  at  least  skip  one  meal  before  they  came  into  the  lab,  and  they  are  brought  into   the  lab  and  think  they  are  doing  a  taste-­‐testing  study.  The  lab  smells  like  cookies  and  they  are   sat  down  and  in  front  of  them  is  a  plate  of  chocolate  chip  cookies  and  a  plate  of  turnips.  Those   in  the  cookie  condition  are  told  they  are  tasting  the  cookies.  Or  they  are  there  and  they  smell   the  cookies  but  they  have  to  eat  turnips.     Our  independent  variable  is  the  type  of  food  the  hungry  people  are  being  allowed  to  eat.     Those  in  the  cookie  condition  have  to  eat  the  cookies,  and  those  in  the  turnip  condition  have  to   self-­‐regulate  so  as  to  eat  the  turnip.     Afterwards  they  were  all  given  puzzles  to  see  if  they  can  complete  it.  It  was  an  unsolvable   puzzle,  but  the  participants  didn't  know.  They  just  wanted  to  see  how  long  the  participants   would  try,  and  what  they  found  was  that  those  who  had  been  forced  to  eat  the  turnips  (and   had  used  a  lot  of  self-­‐regulation  for  the  turnips)  persisted  much  less,  while  the  cookie-­‐eaters   tried  as  hard  as  they  could  since  they  hadn’t  used  up  their  regulatory  resources.     Self-­‐Regulation:  Delayed  Gratification:     It  is  all  about  looking  at  kids  and  how  well  they  are  at  postponing  their  immediate  reward  in   order  to  get  a  bigger  reward.  They  are  placed  in  front  of  a  marshmallow,  they  leave  them  in  the   room,  and  say  “If  you  manage  to  control  yourself,  I’ll  give  you  two,”  and  the  kids  know  that  they   have  to  wait  until  they  get  a  better  reward.  How  well  kids  can  do  this  shows  how  self-­‐regulatory   they  become  later  in  life.     The  ability  to  delay  gratification  as  a  four  year  old  helps  to  be  better  at  social  situations  and  to   be  able  to  self-­‐regulate  and  control  yourself  in  many  situations.     What  are  the  strategies  that  kids  use  to  control  themselves:   • Turning  hot  cognitions  into  cold  cognitions.   o Hot  cognition  is  thinking  of  the  marshmallow  as  this  thing  you  want  to  it.   o Cold  cognition  is  imagining  it  as  something  that  you  don’t  want  to  eat,  trying   to  turn  it  into  something  else.   § Those  who  reported  doing  this  sort  of  thing  were  reported  as  the   most  successful  in  terms  of  self-­‐regulation.     Sex     The  Kinsey  studies  were  done  in  1940.  What  the  Kinsey  surveys  did  was  that  they  really   changed  the  way  we  thought  about  sex  and  women  in  sex.       With  Who?     The  majority  of  people  are  heterosexual  and  choose  to  have  sex  with  partners  of  the  opposite   sex,  and  there  are  clear  evolutionary  reasons  for  that.     So  you  ask  what  is  the  reason  of  homosexuality?  Where  does  it  come  from?       We
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